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Appearance of strabismus b/c of epicanthic fold. But Normal for a young child
Inward turning of the eye; cross eyed
Outward turning of eyes
Lids are swollen and puffy. Lid tissues are loosely connected so excess fluid is easily apparent. Occurs with local infection, crying, and CHF, renal failure, allergy, hypothyroidism.
forward displacement of eyeballs, widened palpebral fissures, lid lag, white sclera visible.
Drooping of upper lid. Occurs from neuromuscular weakness (myasthenia gravis), oculomotor nerve II damage, or sympathetic nerve damage (Horner's syndrome). Gives the person a sleepy appearance and impairs vision.
Lower lid loose and rolling out, excess tearing, eyes feel dry and itchy because tears don't drain correctly. Increased risk for inflammation. Occurs with aging as a result of atrophy of elastic tissues, maybe from trauma.
Lower lid rolls in because of spasm of lids or scar tissue contracting. Constant rubbing irritates cornea. Person feels "foreign body" sensation
Imflammation of the eyelids. Red scaly greasy flakes and thickened, crusted lid margins. Occurs with staph infection or seborrheic dermatitis of lid ledge. Burning, itching, tearing, foreign body sensation, and some pain.
Localized staph infection of hair follicles at lid margin. Painful, red, swollen. Pustule at lid margin. rubbing can cause cross contamination.
Unequal pupil size. Central nervous system disease
When light is directed to blind eye, no response occurs with either eye. Light directed to normal eye, both pupils constrict as long as oculomotor nerve intact.
dilated and fixed pupils. Enlarged pupils occurs with sympathetic nervous system, drug reaction, dilating drops, acute glaucoma, trauma. Herald central nervous system injury, circulatory arrest, or deep anesthesia.
Constricted and fixed pupils with use of pilocarpine drops for glaucoma. Narcotics, with iritis, and brain damage of pons.
Infection of conjuctiva, pink eye, red beefy looking vessels clearer around iris. Purulent discharge accompanies bacterial infection. Itching, burning, foreign body sensation, eyelids stuck together on awakening.
Acute narrow-angle Glaucoma
Circumcorneal redness around iris, dilated pupil. Pupil is oval, looks steamy. Occurs with sudden increase in intraocular pressure. Sudden clouding of vision, eye pain, and halos around lights. Emergency to avoid permanent vision loss.
Chronic open angle glaucoma
No warning, happens over time.
Result of blunt eye injury, irregular ridges. Over worn contact lenses, top layer of corneal epithelium removed. Intense pain, foreign body sensation, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia.
- Senile: Central gray opacity, nuclear, shows opaque gray surrounded by black background. Begins after 40, develops slowly, gradually obstructing vision.
- Star shaped opacity- cortical cataract: assymetrical, radial, white spokes with black center. Progresses faster.
Optic atrophy (Disc Pallor)
white gray color or disc, result of complete death of optic nerve. Decreased visual acuity, decreased color vision, decreased contrast sensitivity
Increased intraccranial pressure causes venous stasis, redness, congestion, elevation of disc, blurred margins, hemmorrhages. Visual acuity not affected.
Excessive cup-disc ratio
with open angle glaucoma. ICup enlarges. Asymptomatic, may have decreased vision or visual field defects in late stages of glaucoma.
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