ABSITE ch 10 nutrition.txt

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alshada
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ABSITE ch 10 nutrition.txt
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2010-01-11 11:08:53
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ABSITE ch 10 nutrition
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  1. Daily caloric needs
    25 kcal/kg/day
  2. calories in each gram of protein
    4
  3. calories in each gram of fat
    9
  4. calories in each gram of oral carbohydrate
    4
  5. calories in each gram of dextrose
    3.4
  6. daily protein needs
    1g/kg/day
  7. increase in caloric requirements in times of trauma or stress
    20-40%
  8. inc kcal requirement in pregnancy
    300kcal/day
  9. inc kcal requirement in lactation
    500 kcal/day
  10. equation to determine caloric needs in burn patients
    25 kcal/kg/day + (30 kcal/kg/day X % burn)
  11. equation to determine protein needs in burn patients
    1-1.5g/day + (3g X % burn)
  12. increase in basal metabolic rate for each body temp degree >38
    10%
  13. equation calculating basal energy expenditure
    Harris Benedict equation
  14. Adjusted body weight
    = [(actual weight- ideal weight) X 0.25] + IBW
  15. fuel for colonocytes
    short chain fatty acids
  16. fuel for small bowel enterocytes
    glutamine
  17. primary fuel for neoplastic cells
    glutamine
  18. half-life of albumin
    20 days
  19. half-life of transferrin
    10 days
  20. half-life of prealbumin
    2 days
  21. ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed
    respiratory quotient
  22. RQ demonstrating lipogenesis (overfeeding)
    RQ>1
  23. RQ demonstrating ketosis and fat oxygenation (starvation)
    RQ<0.7
  24. RQ of pure fat metabolism
    0.7
  25. RQ of pure protein metabolism
    0.8
  26. RQ of pure carbohydrate metabolism
    1.0
  27. organ that contains glucose-6-phosphatase
    liver
  28. main source of energy in trauma and starvation
    fats
  29. bacterial overgrowth with increased intestinal permeability to bacteria due to starved enterocytes
    bacterial translocation
  30. fuel for brain during starvation
    ketones
  31. obligate glucose users in the body (4)
    peripheral nerves, adrenal medulla, RBCs, WBCs
  32. cytokine mediating cachexia
    TNF alpha
  33. Severe protein deficiency
    Kwashiorkor
  34. Severe starvation
    Marasmus
  35. Adrenal response to injury/trauma
    Inc cortisol, inc catecholamine
  36. Cardiac response to trauma/injury
    Inc stroke vol, inc HR
  37. Pancreatic response to trauma/injury
    Inc glucagon, dec insulin
  38. Pituitary response to trauma/injury
    Release of ACTH, ADH, GH
  39. Amount of protein that contains 1g nitrogen
    6.25 g
  40. nitrogen balance equation
    = (Nin-Nout) = ([protein/6.25] � [24 hr urine N + 4g])
  41. total protein synthesis in a healthy normal 70kg male
    250g/day
  42. amino acids preferentially generated from skeletal muscle breakdown
    alanine, glutamine
  43. aggregates of bile salts, long chain free-fatty acids, and monoacylglycerides
    micelles
  44. factor that increases absorption area for fats, helping to form micelles
    bile salts
  45. factor used to synthesize bile salts
    cholesterol
  46. fat types that enter enterocytes by simple diffusion
    medium and short chain fatty acids
  47. enzyme that clears chylomicrons from the blood
    lipoprotein lipase
  48. structure formed when micelles and other fatty acids enter enterocytes
    chylomicrons
  49. fats that enter the portal system
    medium and short chain fatty acids
  50. fats that enter lymphatics
    long chain fatty acids
  51. most important route of entry for dietary cholesterol; synthesized in liver
    VLDL
  52. Fats used for fuel by cardiac and skeletal muscles
    Saturated fatty acids
  53. Preferred energy source for liver, heart, and skeletal muscle
    Fatty acids (ketones acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate)
  54. Enzyme that breaks down TAGs to fatty acids and glycerol
    Hormone sensitive lipase
  55. Essential fatty acids (2)
    Linoleic, linolenic
  56. Omega 3 fatty acids (3)
    PGI3, TXA3, LTB5 (all odd)
  57. Omega 6 fatty acids (3)
    PGE2, TXA2, LTB4 (all even)
  58. First enzyme of carbohydrate digestion
    Salivary amylase
  59. Carbohydrates absorbed by secondary active transport into portal vein
    Glucose, galactose
  60. Carbohydrates absorbed by facilitated diffusion into portal vein
    Fructose
  61. Fructose + glucose
    Sucrose
  62. Galactose + glucose
    Lactose
  63. Glucose + glucose
    Maltose
  64. First enzyme for protein digestion
    Pepsin (stomach)
  65. Nonessential amino acids
    Those beginning with A and G, and proline and serine
  66. Branched chain amino acids
    Leucine, isoleucine, valine
  67. Vitamin deficiency causing hyperglycemia, encephalopathy, neuropathy
    Chromium
  68. Vitamin deficiency causing cardiomyopathy, weakness and hairloss
    Selenium
  69. Vitamin deficiency causing pancytopenia
    Copper
  70. Vitamin deficiency causing poor wound healing, hair loss, rash
    Zinc
  71. Vitamin deficiency causing weakness, encephalopathy, decreased phagocytosis
    Phosphate
  72. Vitamin deficiency causing wernicke�s encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy
    B1 (thiamine)
  73. Vitamin deficiency causing sideroblastic anemia, glossitis, peripheral neuropathy
    B6 (pyridoxine)
  74. Vitamin deficiency causing megaloblastic anemia, peripheral neuropathy, beefy tongue
    B12 (cyanocobalmin)
  75. Vitamin deficiency causing megaloblastic anemia and glossitis
    Folate
  76. Vitamin deficiency causing pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)
    Niacin
  77. Vitamin deficiency causing night blindness
    Vit A
  78. Vitamin deficiency causing coagulopathy
    Vit K
  79. Vitamin deficiency causing rickets, osteomalacia
    Vit D
  80. Vitamin deficiency causing neuropathy
    Vit E

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