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- -principle 1: "the greatest-happiness"
- actions are right in proportion
- right actions tend to promote happiness
- wrong actions tend to produce reverse of happiness
- -principle 2: "the end justifies the means"
- looks at result of a decision
- action is taken based on the result that produced the most good (happiness) for most people
- directly opposed to utilitarianism
- states, it's not the consequence or end result that makes action right or wrong
- what makes an action wrong or right is motivation on which action is based
- -it should be based in the a sense of duty and a respect for moral law
- "I make the choice b/c it is morally right and my duty to do so" (not b/c I consider the possible outcome)
Christian Ethics (the Golden Rule)
- "do unto others as you would have them do unto you"
- "do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you"
Natural law theory ("Do good and avoid evil")
- grounded in concern for human good (but, "human good" is not explained)
- Creator endows all things with a potential or tendency to serve to define a natural end
- natural potential, or tendency, of human beings is ability to live according to dictates of reason; humans are able to choose "good" over "evil"
- in natural law, evil acts are never condoned, even if they are intended to advance the noblest of ends
- "what is right is good is what is best for person making decision"
- action may not be best for anyone else involved, but consideration is only for person making decision
- there own advantage