Lecture 14: Growth and Microbial Genetics (Quiz 7)

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Lecture 14: Growth and Microbial Genetics (Quiz 7)
2015-05-22 17:36:52
Genetics and Growth
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  1. Phenol Coefficient
    • Compares how good something is to phenol
    • Done in liquid form
    • High Number: Kills more bacteria than Phenol
    • Low Number: Did worse than Phenol (didn't kill enough)
  2. Kirby-Bauer Method
    • Susceptibility testing
    • Taking bacteria and creating a lawn on a plate, then placing an antibiotic disk on it.
    • Every hospital in the world does it the same
    • Zone if Inhibition: Where cells are being killed around the disk
    • Cells that don't have a zone are considered Resistant
  3. Disc Diffusion
    • Very similar to Kirby-Bauer but with chemicals
    • Not nearly as standardized
  4. Mechanisms of Action for Disinfectants
    • Denature proteins (changes structure)
    • Surfactants on Membrane (makes items soluble, will now wash away with water)
    • Alkylating Agents: Nulceic Acids, can replace hydrogen bonds, increasing the pH
    • Viruses can be killed easy
  5. Classes of Disinfectant
    • Acids: Change in pH to kill microbes
    • Metals: Silver, Mercury, reactive with proteins (Kills Disulfide Bridges), can't become to resistant
    • Soaps: Surfactants, Contain Alkali and Sodium, kill bacteria and some viruses
    • Halogens: Chlorine (bleach), Iodine (7 electrons in outer shell, breaks down proteins/lipids by stealing electrons
  6. Alcohols
    • Kill bacteria and fungi
    • NOT: Endospores, non-enveloped viruses
    • Protein denaturation and lipid disruption
    • Evaporates, rapidly pulling water with it
    • Good for wiping skin
    • Bad for wounds (coagulation of a layer of protein leaves bacteria to grow)
    • Need water for denaturation reactions
  7. Hydrogen Peroxide
    • 100% used to clean Biosafety rooms
    • Kills everything known to man
    • R2D2 of death
    • Superoxide: bounces around and kills everything
  8. DNA Structure
    • All information necessary for for life is stored in an organisms genetic material - DNA and in some cases RNA
    • Anti-parallel, 3' and 5' ends
    • Double Stranded
    • Double Helix
    • Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
    • Base Pairs: A/T and G/C
  9. Heredity
    • Transmission of information to the offspring
    • Genetics: the study of heredity
    • Genome: Genetic information in a cell
  10. Chromosomes
    • Prokaryotes: 1 circular chromosome (vibrios have 2), 1000X longer than the cell (Supercoiling)
    • Eukaryotes: Linear, where duplicated, histones to wind up DNA
  11. Genes
    • Basic unit of heredity
    • Linear sequence of genetic information
    • Usually 1 gene = 1 function
  12. Locus
    Location of the specific gene
  13. Allele
    • Multiple copies
    • Genes with different information at the same locus
  14. Average Gene Size
    1000 base pairs/nulceotides
  15. 100K Genome Project
    • Based on food born pathogens
    • The goal is to create a catalog with 1000 pathogens.
  16. Genotype
    • Information that encodes all the traits of an organism
    • Potential properties of the organism
    • ALL of the genes
    • Mutations change
  17. Phenotype
    • The actual expressed properties of the organism
    • Manifestation of the genotype
    • Only what is turned on in the cell
    • Mutations do not changes
  18. Central Dogma
    • Replication: DNA makes new DNA (daughter cells)
    • Transcription: DNA makes RNA as the first step in protein synthesis, new polymer is mRNA (where amino acids are made), can do it backwards for retroviruses
    • Translation: RNA codes for amino acids and links them together to form proteins
  19. DNA Binding
    • DNA: A binds to T, and G binds to C
    • RNA: A binds to U now (instead of T), and G still binds to C
  20. Topoisomerase
    • DNA Replication
    • Unwinds DNA
    • Relaxes supercoiling at the end of the replication fork
    • Separates DNA circles at the end of replication
  21. Helicase
    • DNA Replication
    • Pulls double-stranded DNA apart
  22. Single Stranded Bind Proteins
    • DNA Replication
    • Keeps the single strands pulled apart
    • Holds replication fork open
  23. Primase
    • DNA Replication
    • Creates short double stranded pieces
    • Drops in nucleotides
  24. Polymerase
    • Replicates DNA
    • Copies of RNA form a DNA template
    • Problem: Moves in 3' to 5' direction (only 1 way)
    • Attaches and never stops
    • Problem: needs double stranded pieces to start
  25. Ligase
    • DNA Replication
    • Connects to Okazaki Fragments
    • Makes covalent bonds to join DNA strands
  26. Leading Strand
    • Polymerase moves into the replication fork.
    • Goes from 3' to 5', to the right 
  27. Lagging Strand
    • Moves away from the replication fork
    • Still 3' to 5', goes left 
    • Has Okazaki Fragments
  28. Okazaki Fragments
    • Short pieces of DNA on the lagging strand
    • DNA ligase connects them back together
  29. Semiconservative Replication
    Origin of replication of a chromosome