People were leaving east germany meaning they were losing skilled workers and communism looked bad to rest of the world as people didn't want to stay under it.
Khruschev wanted western troops out of Berlin within 6 months or else (meant it wouldn't be easy for East Germans to leave)
Nothing decided except for another meeting
Ultimatum withdrawn, no solution
Khruschev walked out because an American Spy plane had been shot down over USSR and there was no apology.
Kennedy was president so Khruschev thought he could push him around. Neither side backed down so the ultimatum was reinstated with threat of war.
Solution as stopped East Germans being able to cross to West in Berlin. Prevented War
Berlin Wall consequences
Prevented War, solved the division, helped Kennedy seem better to West, people started escapes from east to get back to family
USA had 20 x more bombs, B52 bombers and an early lead. USSR couldn't hit them and weren't wealthy enough to make more
Right next to USA so misslies there could hit anywhere in The US
Leader of Cuba. Turned it communist, confiscted American Property and Company and abolished anyone loyal to capitalism
They threatened to bankrupt Cuba so Cuba turned to USSr for help.
CIA's idea. Cubans that were banished would take back Cuba with no Americans hurt
Bay of Pigs
The invasion. Failed because Cubans knew about it already and were waiting. Cuba asked USSR for protection so They got missiles and nukes.
Cuban missile crisis- the start
Kennedy discovers sites of missiles of imposes a naval blockade but Khruschev doesn't back down and both sides prepare for war
Cuban missile crisis- end
USSR say they will remove missiles if USA don't invade Cuba and withdraw missiles from Turkey. America agree as long as their missile removal is kept secret.
Cuban missile crisis consequences
Khruschev looks bad, wars avoided, hotline imposed, Cuban independence, test ban treaty
A direct telephone between Russia and America so superpowers could stay in touch and talk more things over.
Declining living standards, political murders and repression, secret police
Brezhnev chose him to lead because he was a good friend.
Dubcek tried to create popular communism. He removed repression, allowed for greater freedom including relaxed press censorship, legalised political opposition, introduced democracy and reformed the econony
Gave Brezhnev the right to invade any country pulling away from communism
Used Brezhnev doctrine to stop the Prague spring and arrest Dubcek forcing him to sigh the Moscow protocol.
Consequences of Czech invasion
America were in Vietnam but condemned invasion. Rival forms of communism were created. Authority and support of soviets was lost.