Oncology

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Rodders81
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303186
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Oncology
Updated:
2015-06-26 13:48:23
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oncology
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Oncology
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  1. Give 4 risk factors for PANCREATIC cancer.(question 25)
    • Tobacco Smoking
    • High fat & meat consumption
    • High coffee & alcohol consumption
    • Exposure to DDT
    • Chronic pancreatitis
  2. Give 4 risk factors for COLO-RECTAL cancer (question 25)
    • Dietary promoters:
    • High meat consumption
    • High fat consumption
    • High calorific intake
    • High alcohol
    • Low fibre diet
  3. Give 4 signs & symptoms of LUNG cancer. (question 26)
    • Dry & persistent cough, little sputum, some blood possible
    • Pain behind the sternum or in the back
    • Recurrent chest infections

    • later stages:
    • Bloody or raspberry jelly-like sputum
    • Hoarseness
  4. Give 4 signs & symptoms of COLO-RECTAL cancer. (question 26)
    • Change in bowel habit:
    • Alternating diarrhoea & constipation
    • Anal bleeding
    • Blood in stool (occult blood)
    • Mucus on stool
    • Stool mixed with flatulence
    • Anaemia 
    • Colicky abdominal pain (obstruction)
  5. Give 4 signs & symptoms of BREAST cancer. (question 26)
    • Painless, unilateral lump (Esp in upper quadrant)
    • Asymmetry of breasts 
    • Discharge/bleeding from nipple
    • Retracted/deviated nipple
    • Pain in breasts or armpits (not related to period)
    • Dimpling/puckering of the breast skin
    • Enlargement of axillary lymph nodes
  6. Give 4 signs & symptoms of OVARIAN cancer. (question 26)
    • Asymptomatic for a long time.
    • Vague abdominal discomfort 
    • Pelvic pain
    • Abdominal swelling

    • Later stages:
    • Changes in bowel & urinary habits
    • General symptoms
  7. Give 4 signs & symptoms of CERVICAL cancer. (question 26)
    Don't think its this question as not enough symptoms listed!
    Often NO symptoms to start

    • later stages:
    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
    • Bleeding between periods
    • Unusual vaginal discharge (greyish colour, watery, sour off smell)
  8. Give 4 signs & symptoms of LIVER cancer. (question 26)
    • Portal hypertension
    • Pain radiating into the back
    • Jaundice
    • Fever
  9. Give 4 signs & symptoms of STOMACH cancer. (question 26)
    • Pain in stomach area
    • Nausea
    • Low appetite
    • Vomiting (blood)
    • Disgust for meat

    • Later stages:
    • Anorexia
    • Unexplained weight loss
  10. Give 4 signs & symptoms of OESOPHAGEAL cancer. (question 26)
    • Problems swallowing (dysphagia)
    • Loss of appetite
    • Regurgitation of food
    • Non-sour reflux
    • Retro-sternal discomfort 
    • Weight loss
    • Severe coughing after swallowing
  11. Give 4 signs & symptoms of PANCREATIC cancer. (question 26)
    Lack of early symptoms

    • Later:
    • Jaundice/ Icterus
    • Dark urine
    • Pale stools
    • Skin itching
    • Pain radiating to the back
    • Fatty stools
    • Diabetes mellitus
  12. Give 4 signs & symptoms of BLADDER cancer. (question 26)
    • Painless haematuria (blood in urine)
    • Frequency
    • Urgency
    • Dysuria
  13. Give 4 signs & symptoms of LEUKAEMIA. (question 26)
    Often no symptoms or may be vague and non-specific (like flu)

    • Common symptoms:
    • Excessive bruising or bleeding
    • Weakness & fatigue
    • Anaemia
    • Frequent infections
    • Fever
    • Weight loss
    • Pain in bones & joints
    • Enlarged lymph, spleen, liver
    • Abdominal discomfort
  14. 4 signs & symptoms of PROSTATE cancer? (question 26)
    • Back pain
    • increased urinating frequency
    • Nocturia
    • Dribbling
  15. What is the medical term for weight loss, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and involuntary wasting away? (question 24 or 28)
    Cachexia!
  16. Define the term Mutation: (question 24)
    A change in the genetic information/DNA sequence
  17. Define the term Mutagen (question 24)
    An agent that changes the genetic information.

    • e.g.
    • Chemicals
    • Environmental hazards
    • Radiation
    • Viruses
    • Inflammation
    • Defective immunity
    • Stress/emotional trauma
  18. Define the term Carcinogen (question 24)
    Any agent which causes/generates cancer
  19. Define the term Carcinogenesis (question 24)
    The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells
  20. Define the term Oncology (question 24)
    Medical subject dealing with the study and treatment of cancer
  21. Define the term Neoplasm (question 24)
    A mass of tissue that grows faster than normal in an uncoordinated manner resulting from an abnormal growth/division of cells
  22. Define the term Tumour (question 24)
    A mass/ growth of tissue can either be malignant or benign
  23. Define the term Metastasis (question 24)
    Growth spreading to other parts of the body
  24. define BENIGN (question 24)
    a tumour that is not harmful (unlikely to spread)
  25. Define MALIGNANT (question 24)
    an uncontrollable, fast growing tumour that is often life threatening.
  26. Define STAGING (question 24)
    the classification of malignant tumours according to the extent of the disease at the tie of diagnosis.
  27. define GRADING (question 24)
    The measure of the degree of cell differentiation /abnormality
  28. What is Chemotherapy? (question 24)
    a combination of different drugs designed to influence rapidly dividing cells
  29. What is Radiotherapy? (question 24)
    treatment of cancer using radiation. It works by damaging the DNA of the cancer cells
  30. What is meant by Remission? (question 24)
    The state of absence of disease.
  31. What is a Sarcoma?
    Cancers that form in the connective tissue
  32. What is a Lipoma?
    A benign and slow growing tumour comprised of Adipose tissue
  33. What is Leukaemia?
    Cancer that evolves in the Blood or Bone Marrow
  34. What is a Carcinoma?
    Cancers that form in the epithelial tissues
  35. Define the term Palliative care (question 24)
    Medical care/treatment concentrating on reducing symptom severity or slowing disease progress rather than curing it
  36. Give 4 unavoidable risk factors for cancer (question 28)
    • Genetic factors
    • Chronic inflammation (IBD, gastritis, GERD)
    • Certain viruses - HPV/HSV-8 (karposis sarcoma)
    • Exposure to mutagens eg DDT
  37. Give 4 avoidable risk factors for cancer (question 28)
    • Smoking
    • Food additives
    • High red meat intake
    • High fat intake
    • Heavy drinking
    • Chronic stress
    • Excessive exposure to sunlight
    • sexual behaviour
  38. Why would someone with HIV develop Karposi's sarcoma - HHV8 human herpes virus 8 (question 27)
    The HIV virus attacks and destroys T-helper cells/T-lymphocytes/CD4 cells and macrophages and they are needed to destroy abnormal cancerous cells.

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