Children are born good, and this innate goodness needed to be nurtured.
The main goal of education to nurture what's already there and help the child reach their potential.
What are some ideas that were based on Jean-Jacques Rousseau's beliefs?
He had influence on Education reform. (child-centred learning, New Education)
He is also the founder of child psychology (understanding of how children think and operate)
What were some goals of the education system of New France?
Education = Key to social control/cohesion
Strengthen/teach catholic faith to French settlers
spread faith to aboriginals
For girls the focus was on domestic skills
For boys they needed basic catechism, reading/writing/math, elementary Latin
Two things Jesuits and etc. did to promote education were
Catholic orders provide most of the teachers
and established curriculum
Teach religion, establish schools
Teach basic reading/writing/arithmetic
Establish morals and religious values
What were the two orders of nuns that helped found schools along with the Jesuits?
Congregation of Notre Dame or "Our Lady" in English
Who was Maria de Incarnation?
the found of the Ursuline nun order
called by God to go to New France to spread the faith and start schools
she dropped her business and put son in an orphanage
highly educated, established schools, nunneries
The small schools in New France were called
Two types of Petites Écoles
Day schools for lower class (poor) people. Mostly free or had a small fee. These were only established in towns
Boarding schools. Available for those who lived out of town, but fees were quite high. Only the elite could afford to send their kids to Boarding School
What was the main goal of Secondary education in New France? How was this first attempted?
Emphasis on classical education (Humanities like Latin and Greek)
Jesuits established "College de Quebec" (a HS)
What did trade schools teach in New France?
Skills and trades
Apprenticeships and practical skills like shoe-making, furniture etc
What was the purpose of education concerning indigenous people in New France?
Promote conversion to the Catholic faith
Assimilation (long term)
What types of early aboriginal education was there in New France? What was most successful?
Day school and Boarding School
They experience more success (Indigenous Catholic converts) when going into the communities themselves and converting chiefs and leaders.
What were the four main education issues that needed to be resolved in upper Canada (1763-1840)?
1. Who should control education?
2. Who should pay for education? How should education be funded?
3. What should curriculum consist of? Who should decide?
4. Should education be free for everyone or just the elites?
1807 Grammar Act was also called
the District School Act
What did the 1807 Grammar Act do?
Created 8 grammar schools (one in each district)
Controlled by Anglican Church
Classical curriculum focus
Government gave 100£ for each teachers salary
What did the 1807 Grammar Act not do?
Did not require the government to provide for inspection
Schools weren't dependent on government control.
There were no provisions for children who couldn't afford school.
No basic education for students younger than High School age
Why were Private Venture schools established?”
There were no public schools
To make money
A large number of teachers were excluded from the government grant because had to
apply for it so some teachers started up private venture schools
Private individuals or groups could start up a school
Some schools were started by philanthropists to help the community.
Who and why were female academies established in early Upper Canada?
For daughters of the elite.
Emphasis on preparing girls for a useful life as a wife.
Studied ornamental arts and languages.
What were Monitorial Schools?
Monitorial schools put a lot of emphasis on memorization, rote and verbal testing. The teacher and monitors exercised very tight control and humiliation; similar to that of a military system.
What was a monitor?
A monitor was an unpaid student put in charge of seeing to the good behavior of their peers and assist the teacher
Mainly established to save money while managing more students
What were the main concerns of the founders of the Upper Canada Academy?
Ignorance and indifference to educational improvement
Lack of reading, writing and spelling skills.
Some members of the Assembly (Parliament) couldn't read and write.
Too few schools and of terrible quality
Schools located in secluded parts
What was the role of Sunday School in early Upper Canada education?
taught how to read using the Bible
sometimes kids who couldn’t afford school or couldn’t commute to school only had Sunday
School as education
Two terms of the Common School Act of 1816 were
Each district had to have a board of education
The government would contribute 25 pounds toward a teacher's salary for any school with 20 or more kids
Some teacher standards (such as being a British citizen)
What were some impacts of the Common School Act of 1816
First governmental attempt to provide education for everyone
Each community could decide if they wanted a school or not.
What were some strengths of schools in Upper Canada till 1840?
Government initiated (a first step)
High literacy rates.
Creates sense of identity and national unity
Beginnings of secondary education (High school)
People came from other countries to study the ON school system.
What were some weaknesses of schools in Upper Canada till 1840?
Tried to assimilate to everyone to think/act alike and love British constitution, and the values of the British empire
Lack of standardization
No qualifications or training for teachers
Dodgy student attendance mostly due to long commutes/lack of roads to schools
Fees were unaffordable
Two of Egerton Ryerson's principles and goals of/for education were
Preventing pauperism and criminality among the poorest classes
Education was not just for knowledge but the ability to contribute to society as a citizen. (Duty and employment)
He believed ignorance caused crime.
Universality for all socioeconomic
classes; for education to be universal it would also have to be free
Practicality: efficient in teaching qualities as well as knowledge; religion and morality are included under practicality
What were the Anglican Clergy Reserves and why did Ryerson oppose it?
1/7th of the farmland was owned by the Anglican Church as a state fund for the clergy.
Conflict: Ryerson need for funds from Anglican farmland to support all religions, or better yet, public schools.
Three points in the Common School Act of 1841 were
The goal was to create a uniform school system (standards).
The government established a permanent school fund matched by local property owners
Created position of Superintendent of Education to create book list and regular exams
Established basic standards for teachers.
Put the district school board in charge of building the schoolhouse, paying for its maintenance, as well as hiring and firing teachers (local control).
Dissentient clause:Parents of a different faith from the majority in each school district could set up separate common (public) school for their children. These schools would also be government-funded and subject to the same regulations
What was the Dissentient Clause
Parents of a different faith from the majority in each school district could set up separate common (public) school for their children. These schools would also be government-funded and subject to the same regulations
What was the impact of the Common Schools Act of 1841?
Allowed religious minorities to set up schools
What were the goals of the Common School Act of 1846?
To be a follow up on 1841 act, which needed tighter regulations.
What were the terms of the Common School Act of 1846?
Created normal schools to train teachers
Established a general board of education. Banned the use of foreign textbooks
What was the impact of the 1846 Common School Act?
Every teacher had to pass exams, take certain subjects, etc.
Ryerson brought in the Irish readers, which taught reading, history, math and science in 4 levels
Brought in a system of inspectors with the goal of keeping standards.
What were the various types of separate schools?
Catholic, Gaelic, German, Indigenous and Black
Why did Ryerson choose the Irish Readers?
To create uniformity
Comprehensive with various subjects math, science, etc.
Religious but non-denominational
What were the general contents of Irish Readers?
Reading, arithmetic, science integrated into one
What were the impacts of the Irish Readers?
Unity/standard for textbooks
Promotion of British values
How did Ryerson deal with opposition and gain support for the changes he was making?
He conducts numerous tours, holding meetings to explain his policies to parents
Created educational depository: a central place to store required texts, and visual aids
Created a journal of education (publicized his ideas, and articles supporting his ideas from other countries)
Maintained it was a civic responsibility to pay [pay for education] to produce good citizens
What were the goals of the Grammar School Act of 1853?
Free, compulsory, available education, high school level (long term)
1st step: Grammar schools under closer government control
What were the terms of the Grammar School Act of 1853?
Gave the Council of Public Instruction power to make regulations regarding curriculum, textbooks, and appoint inspectors
Principal ("Master") would have to be a University graduate
What were the impacts of the Grammar School Act of 1853?
Greater control and higher standards. But big difference in establishing laws and putting into practice
People worried attempt of government to control school was sign of communism
What were the terms of the 1871 Public Schools Act?
Now compulsory that all property owners
(business, store, house) pay property tax
From now on, ages 8-14 have to go to school
Teachers have to go to normal school to get certificate, Normal School would be free
Grammar school was divided into two groups, High schools for trades (non-university path) and Collegiate for a classical focus (university path)
What were the impact of the 1871 Public Schools Act?
Elementary education is now free (because of taxation
Parents were fined if they didn't send their school age children to school.
How was early education conducted at trading posts in Western Canada?
HB managers instructed to provide basic school for trader's children
Hired tutors or home schooled.
Some spellers requested from Britain
School instructions came in from Britain saying that school stared at 5 years old, 4 Rs and educate aboriginals who were friends with the traders (children of chiefs)
Grading was done by sending work to London.
Why were Metis boys sent to England and Montreal?
to learn to read and write.
Why did the Selkirk Settlers emphasize literacy? How was this promoted after they arrived in Canada?
Scotland had the highest ratio of literacy because Calvinism emphasized reading the Bible
Lord Selkirk, who sponsored the settlement, also sent teachers
Violence between two trading post companies caused the schools to be closed
Selkirk settlers asked for missionaries to establish schools
Provencher arrives after the companies merge and established Catholic schools
What was Joseph Provencher's role in establishing Catholic schools at Red River?
Selkirk settlers sent word to QC asking for missionaries to promote education amongst catholic fur traders
3 Catholic missionaries arrive with the goal of
Established 3 main schools (mostly for Metis children) in St. Boniface, The Forks and Pembina
Father Provencher invited the Gray nuns from QC, who established a school for girls in St. Boniface.
Why was George Simpson reluctant to include education?
He was Extremely racist: "An enlightened Indian is good for nothing"
Didn't want to educate people because it would steer them away from the fur trade (to settling down and farming, etc.)
Didn't like John West because he denounced the use of alcohol in the fur trade due to debilitation of aboriginal; and also wanted no fur trade to happen on Sunday.
What were two things George Simpson did to sabotage education ?
Got John West recalled.
Was the source of rumours that James Evans was a sexual predator so he was dismissed. It was uncertain if he was.
What education did George Simpson allow? What was it like?
David Jones established boarding schools for children of "gentlemen" (fur trade managers)
Hudson’s Bay Company gave a grant to fund the school
Wanted to train the elite to be tough (harsh discipline and not edible food)
Metis could attend but aboriginal mothers could not visit
Who were the Oblates?
Male missionaries who established schools in Western Canada, emphasizing education for boys (Metis, white and aboriginal)
Who were the Gray Nuns?
Established a school for girls in St. Boniface that had a good reputation and taught music (piano).
Established schools among Metis communities in SK and AB
What was important about the schools established by the Oblates and the Gray nuns?
Became the basis for residential schools
Who was John West and what did he do for MB education?
A member of the Anglican Church Missionary Society
One of the Protestant missionaries Lord Selkirk invited to Red River
Came to become a chaplain and establish schools for fur traders, English-speaking Metis and aboriginal people
established 4 schools, mostly in English settlements.
What were two ways girls were educated in Red River?
Father Provencher invited Gray nuns from QC who established a school for girls in St. Boniface with a good reputation and taught music (piano).
St. Mary's Academy established (girl's school)
Who established the Red River Academy and who was it a school for?
Anglican School established by David Jones
Later became St. Johns College
Boarding schools for children of "gentlemen" (fur trade managers)
What was James Evans' contribution to education?
A Methodist who went to Norway House and established schools
Established an alphabet for the Cree nation
What groundbreaking thing did the Presbyterians start at Red River and why was it important?
started the first ever non-sectarian common school
Important because it was a huge move towards a public schooling system.
led to public meetings to elect school trustees (democracy)
How did was the first Presbyterian non-sectarian school paid for?
They were supported by the Hudson’s Bay company grants and fees per student
How did Presbyterians contribute to education at Red River? What schools did they establish?
St. John's College
started a high school that developed into Manitoba college
These two later joined to become the University of Manitoba
What colleges were started before 1875 that later became universities?
St. Boniface College, St. John's college, Manitoba college and François de Montmorency-Laval established a seminary that later became Laval University
What were the terms of the Manitoba Act of 1870?
French and English have equal status
Both Catholic and Protestant public systems are paid for by tax dollars (a parallel school board system)
Metis to receive land grants for Metis children and given the land title for the land they already lived on
What were the terms of the Manitoba School Act of 1871?
The Manitoba School Act created a 14 person provincial board of education, divided equally into Catholic and Protestant sections
Equal amount of funding
Each had its own set of normal schools, textbooks and inspectors
Each of districts in addition to grants for the government could levy property taxes or charge fees for additional funds
The Greenway changes to the MB Act were
French is no longer an official language
There is now only one public school system funded (Catholic and other private schools still ok)
What were the causes of the MB school crisis?
Change in population with a minority French
Growing suspicions of Catholics, specifically
that the Pope was trying to run everything
More people believed that western Canada should be primary English-speaking and Protestant
What were the main events of the MB school crisis?
Abolition of the dual school system
French is no longer an official language
There is now only one public school system funded (Catholic and other private schools still ok)
What was John A. MacDonald's government dilemma with taking action regarding the MB school crisis?
Restore French rights = QC happy, ON mad
Do nothing: QC mad and ON happy
What was the lead up to the Laurier-Greenway Compromise of 1897?
Taken to the Supreme Court and eventually the British Privy Council
Rules that the decision is up to the government of Canada. BPC suggests they pass remedial law but up to Canada for coming up with it
What were the terms of the Laurier-Greenway Compromise of 1897?
No restoration of the Dual school system, and still only 1 publically funded school system.
But if there are at least 10 students in school whose parents #1 language is French, there will be bilingual instruction and at least one catholic teacher
Religious instruction will be allowed between 3:30-4:00
If there are at least 40 catholic students (cities) or 25 catholic students (rural) there should be a catholic teacher
Normal schools were established for various ethnic groups
Why did the government allow bilingual schools? What was the result?
Hope that bilingual schools serve as bridge and everyone will eventually speak English.
Most immigrants lived in ethnic communities, where most people were able to keep their original language
What were the main types of bilingual schools?
French: Many students attending private Catholic French schools transferred to public bilingual schools, but it was hard to attract bilingual teachers, and also the quality of bilingual instruction not always very good = French parents started transferring their children back to private schools
What were some educational challenges for MB Ukrainians?
Finding bilingual teachers and textbooks
Inadequate tax bases
Poor quality of buildings
Preoccupied with clearing land, planting crops and building homes
What were the reasons for the growing opposition to bilingual schools?
A series of studies were launched, and the Winnipeg Free Press did a detailed study of the state of education, and quality of education unsatisfactory
These studies concluded that bilingual schools were encouraging people to hang onto their original language and culture
WWI started in 1914. Non-English and Non-French speaking people were under grave suspicion of being disloyal to Canada.
What roles did Daniel McIntyre and Sisler have in the opposition to bilingual schools?
Sisler and Daniel MacIntyre schools: Helped with the assimilation of new immigrants by employing an immigrant curriculum
established evening classes for immigrants to learn English
Who closed bilingual schools and how did he do it?
Liberal T. C. Norris is elected, promising to make changes to school system. He concluded the bilingual school system was not working
the MB School Act of 1916:
Bilingual schools abolished
Teachers need to take oath as loyalty to the crown
English is the dominant language
Need qualified teachers
Parents obligated to send kids to school (if not fines/jail)
What were the impacts of the MB School Act of 1916?
One-third of Mennonites emigrated to Paraguay and Mexico
Ukrainians established special schools that would teach Ukrainian language and culture after 4:00 and Saturdays.
French (most creative): the Catholic Church took the lead and raised funds in Quebec to fund private catholic schools in MB. They defied the law by developing their own alternative French curriculum.
What were two goals for est. res schools?
Assimilation and saving money
What were the indigenous goals vs. gov goals for residential schools?
Indigenous goals: Wanted to read and write and to learn how to farm
Government: speed up assimilation process
of aboriginals to British culture, teach farming skills (half-heartedly), save money (residential schools run by churches, paid less)
What were the types of schools and methods of teaching at residential schools?
Types: Industrial schools (farming) and Residential Academic Schools (4 Rs)
What were some positives and negative impacts of residential school?
Positives: Literacy, lifelong friends, Leaders
learned what not to do and negative experiences made them want to change things
Loss of culture/identity/religion
PTSD; traumatic event effect,
Lack of parental modeling; lack of knowledge how to parent,
Misdirected anger, taking it out on others,
Lawyers took a lot of the money that aboriginals got the compensation
Two basic principles of New Ed movement
Two diff between new and old education were
Emphasis on textbooks and straight knowledge
Fond of memoriter recitation (repeating words)
Mind was exercised but not the body and heart
Emphasis on facts
Military ideas into schools- discipline of subjection and fear regimentation
Prep for exams was everything.
Curriculum as separate identity from real life
Textbooks used as a means of acquisition and improvement source to get info you need
Variety, multiplicity and attractive devices (novelty and sense of freedom) use of aids
Pays more attention to individuals
Exams weren’t emphasized all the time and were used to test a pupils power of doing over his knowledge
Study of nature. Learn by experiencing. Field trips
Two goals of the domestic science programs were
Education in the household arts would teach girls to apply scientific principles to the management of the home
encourage women to stay in the home
Training mind, eye and hand applied to household management by teaching household arts through a combination of scientific explanation and practical work; bringing all the new ideas together and applying it to domestic science.
Emphasized cleanliness, exactness and order
Girls needed formal training, which the home was not able to provide, to prepare them for their future careers as homemakers, or, in some cases, servants
What is kindergarten?
Kindergarten (Garden of Children)
Children want to learn, emphasis on playing (“learning by doing”)
What was manual training?
Better to learn by making things (“learning by doing”)
Practical: growing need for tech/industry training
Increase hand-eye coordination
What were two goals of phys ed?
Unfit/unhealthy = a concern for future soldiers
Importance of play to learn and mental/moral health
Help assimilate foreigners
counteract "racial degeneration" lowering standard of Anglo-Saxons.
schools should offer more than primarily academic training
Women: grace, coordination, child baring health
How was the school system used by the government to achieve its goals?
Promote soldiers, patriotism, and social stability. (goals are all political ultimately)
goals: good citizens (moral, fit, loyal to Britain through books and sports from England)
School knowledge = state knowledge
children were socialized to accept value in serving the state
school system was in charge of ensuring political stability was happening worldwide
school linked to national economic well-being
Political loyalty, economic well-being, social stability (conformity in all three areas)
How was citizenship emphasized?
Focusing much of the curriculum on Canada’s ties to Britain
Teach persistently the character-forming qualities associate with sport, which was intimately linked to the condition of the state
People/state only as strong as patriotism of the people. Therefore education must strengthen loyalty to state.
Why was military drill important?
military drill provided an indispensable lesson in citizenship and patriotic duty
offset the so called modern luxuries that were said to make boys soft
Increasing, a body seemed to belong to the state
Why was masculinity emphasized?
Felt influence of female teachers made pupils less aggressive and overly sensitive, with a tendency to be more receptive and less deductive (which they took to mean their masculinity was being affected)
Wanted the sterner discipline of male teachers to help develop the “masculine qualities”
Concerns about masculinity made it easy to advocate military virtues in young men.
Why were sports emphasized?
Emulate British games and physical exercise programs (British soccer/football, cricket and lacrosse- an aboriginal game, as way of bringing together Canadian and British games)
Advocates believed that any team sport was capable of fostering the patriotism and teamwork deemed so important, especially in the event of war
When was Empire Day and what did it help with?
Appreciation for the Empire
Large number of volunteers for the great war
What was the Public Health Movement and what did it consist of?
An attempt to use schools to counter defects of non-British immigrants: it was believed they were bringing disease, were mentally slower and would have even more ‘defective’ children.
Public health nurses were sent to schools To promote vaccinations (against smallpox, measles, etc.)
Educate on communicable diseases and STDs some went into homes to educate parents (of immigrants mostly)
Public health meant bettering school buildings (ventilation, lighting, windows)
Dentists went to schools to examine people.
Inspectors would check water supply (mostly in urban centres)
How was the Secondary school being changed under the New Ed movement?
Up until now it had promoted Classical Education (Latin and Greek, etc.), now it expanded the curriculum to include physics, chemistry, geography; also practical subjects like bookkeeping as we as art and music
Also increasingly co-ed
Public were demanding Democratization: giving access to different opportunities
What did women need high school for?
More women were going into teaching.
Needed high school to get into Normal School or to become nurses.
What were the assumptions behind the mental hygiene movement?
Have to clean up the immigrants’ minds. They are a threat to British standards, especially if they intermarry with British or Canadians.
Other races are more likely to have mental defects
What were two reasons people with mental disabilities couldn't be in the classroom?
1) This would lower the standard of the school
2) They might fall in love and marry a white person and it'll lower the standard of ‘racial purity’
What was the Eugenics movement and what tools did it use?
Based on a pure race, led to
The sterilization of criminals
Children with downs weren't allowed to leave the hospital (killed babies with downs)
Castration of people with “mental defects”
Special schools for the blind and deaf
Three reasons why women were growing in numbers as elementary teachers
Shortage of teachers.
Pay was low and men didn't stay in teaching but went into other jobs.
Women could be hired and paid less. 33-50% less.
Main goal of teaching is to bring out the natural goodness by nurturing, and women are natural nurtures
Women had very few other job opportunities
Teaching didn't threaten the status or traditional roles of men.
Teaching would prepare women for marriage and having children (practice discipline, etc.)