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What is acute pyelonephritis? (question 3c)
Acute microbial infection of the renal pelvis & medulla which has spread upwards from the bladder or (more rarely) through the blood from other body areas
Identify the condition: Dysuria (painful peeing), pain in lower back, sensitivity to touch in kidney area (often one sided), fever, fatigue and nausea.(question 3a)
What might show on a urine dipstick for Acute Pyelonephritis? (question 3b)
- RBC (haematuria)
- Bacteria (Bacteriuria)
Identify the condition: headaches, tiredness, fever, attacks, mild anaemia (question 3a)
What might show on a urine dipstick for Chronic Pyelonephritis? (question 3b)
Identify the condition: Pain in lower back/abdomen, dysuria, frequent urge to urinate but only passing small amounts, dark, smelly, cloudy urine, systemic signs such as malaise, nausea, fever (question 3a)
What might show on a urine dipstick for Acute Cystitis? (question 3b)
What is a urinary tract infection (UTIs)? (question 3c)
Infection & inflammation of the urinary tract (usually urethra)
Identify the condition: Dysuria, frequent urge to urinate day & night, cloudy & smelly urine, suprapubic pain, blood in urine (question 3a)
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs)
- (usually occurs in urethra)
What might show on a urine dipstick for Urinary Tract Infection? (question 3b)
Identify the condition: Back pain, dark cloudy urine, reduced urine volume, facial and periorbital oedema, increased blood pressure, tiredness, headaches, fever, nausea (question 3a)
What might show on a urine dipstick for Acute Glomerulonephritis? (question 3b)
What are formed in response to infection in glomerulonephritis? (question 3c)
antigen-antibody immune complexes
What type of reaction causes Glomerulonephritis? (question 3c)
Autoimmune reaction - type 3 hypersensitivity
What is Glomerulonephritis? (question 3c)
A collective term for inflammatory disorders of the glomeruli
Why would Nephrotic Syndrome present us with Oedema? (question 4)
- Nephrotic Syndrome is termed 'Leaky Glomeruli'
- Leaky glomeruli causes increased permeability which allows large amounts of plasma proteins (albumin) to seep through from the blood into the filtrate (Albuminuria)
in blood makes it hypotonic
& fluid moves across via osmosis from the blood into tissues.
Blood volume decreases
& interstitial fluid volume increases
Why would Glomerular Sclerosis present us with high blood pressure?
Glomerular Sclerosis is scaring and fibrosis of the glomerular capillaries.
Congestion of the glomerular capillaries inhibits the blood flow (GFR)
Kidneys produce more renin to increase blood flow & restore GFR
This leads to high blood pressure.
Define the term Ogliuria (question 3c)
passing small amounts of urine/low urine output
Define the term Haematuria (question 3c)
Blood in urine
Define the term Dysuria (question 3c)