Urinary System

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  1. Give 6 functions of the Urinary system (kidneys!)(question 1)
    • 1. Excretion (unwanted substances)
    • 2. maintenance of water & electrolytes¬†
    • 3. pH regulation of body fluids
    • 4. Production of hormones
    • 5. Regulation of RBC's production
    • 6. Regulation of blood glucose levels
    • 7. Regulation of blood pressure volume & osmolarity
  2. What are the 5 hormones that affect kidney reabsorption of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl) calcium (Ca) & water as well as the secretion of Potassium (K)
    • 1. Angiotensin II
    • 2. Aldosterone
    • 3. Antidiuretic hormone
    • 4. Atrial natriuretic peptide
    • 5. Parathyroid hormone
  3. Explain the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) (question 2)
    1. Low blood pressure - Kidney cells secrete Renin (angiotensinogenase)

    2. Renin converts Angiotensinogen from the liver into Angiotensin I

    3. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) secreted by the lungs & kidneys (proximal convoluted tubules) converts Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II - The active form of the hormone

    • 4. Angiotensin II (a blood protein):
    • Triggers vasoconstriction
    • Triggers pituitary gland to release ADH (vasopressin)
    • Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce Aldosterone.

    • 5. Aldosterone:
    • Causes the kidneys to retain sodium (Na) and excrete Potassium (K)

    This causes water retention, increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

  4. How does Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) work to decrease blood volume/pressure? (question2)
    ANP is released from the heart when there is a large increase in blood volume/pressure.

    • 1. It inhibits reabsorption of sodium (Na+) & water in the renal tubules
    • 2. It suppresses anti-diuretic hormone & aldosterone.

    This results in an increased excretion of sodium (Na) in the urine and increased urine output which decreases blood volume & pressure
  5. Explain how antidiuretic hormone (ADH) works. (question 2)
    • Reduced water concentration in the blood & lowered blood volume (e.g haemorrhage) causes increased osmotic pressure of the blood.
    • Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus stimulate posterior pituitary to secrete ADH
    • ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules, thus increasing water re-absorption in the kidneys, thereby aiding in rebalancing the osmotic pressure.
    • ADH secretion is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism.

  6. How does Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) work on the kidneys?
    LOW blood calcium stimulates the parathyroid glands to release parathyroid hormone:

    PTH stimulates the kidneys tubules to reabsorb more calcium and inhibits phosphate reabsorption.

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Urinary System
2015-06-26 11:38:55

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