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  1. what are the radiological signs of heart failure?
    Alveolar shadowing, B lines, Cardiomegaly, Diversion to upper lobe, Effusion
  2. what are the radiological signs of COPD?
    hyperinflation (>8 ant ribs), flat hemi-d, decreased lung markings, bullae, prominent hila
  3. radiological signs of collapse
    uniform opacity, deviation towards lesion, small affected lobe
  4. what are radiological signs of consolidation?
    non-uniform opacity, perihilar bronchograms
  5. what are radiological signs of effusion?
    uniform soft tissue opacity, meniscus, gravitational
  6. what system can you use to describe a bone fracture?
    site (bone, joints), slant (complete, direction, skin), segments (angulation, rotation), diSplacement
  7. what are the radiological signs of osteoarthritis?
    loss of joint space, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, subchondral sclerossi
  8. what are the parkinsons plus syndromes?
    multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy
  9. what is pick's disease?
    type of frontotemporal dementia
  10. what are the causes of lower motor lesion?
    common: trauma general: guillain barre, botulism, polio, motor neuron disease.
  11. what are the signs of lower motor lesion?
    pariesis, fasciculation, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, weakness
  12. what is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
    motor neuron disease.
  13. what are the late signs of motor neuron disease?
    eye movement, dementia, bladder and bowel movement.
  14. what are the early signs of myasthenia gravis?
    swallowing, cramping, stiffness, slurred or nasal speech, focal weakness, dropped foot, clumsiness, dexterity, slow saccades
  15. in myasthenia gravis with bulbar onset, what initial symptoms may occur?
    slurred or nasal speech, quiet speech, swallowing
  16. what is the cause of upper motor neuron lesion signs?
    located in spinal cord, cerebrum, nuclei.
  17. what are causes of peripheral neuropathy?
    Diabetes, Alcohol, B12 (b1, b6, E), Toxins (lead, arsenic, chemo), Heriditary (friedrich's, CMT, Refsum's), Amyloid, Porphyria, Infection (HIV, leprosy), Systemic (uraemia, SLE, hypothyroid, Sjogren's), Malignancy (multiple myeloma, paraneoplastic)
  18. what are signs of vitamin E deficiency?
    spinocerebellar ataxia, myopathy, dysarthria, hyporeflexia, loss of dorsal column, positive babinski, anaemia, retinopathy
  19. how can cirrhosis be classed?
    child-pugh based on bilirubin, albumin, INR, ascites, hepatomegaly
  20. what are causes of ascites?
    cirrhosis, carcinomatosis, CCF
  21. what is the main side effects of acarbose and what is it used for/
    antidiabetic - flatulence and GI upset
  22. what is the MODA of pioglitazone and what is the main side effects?
    PPAR-gamma receptor agonist, increasing insulin sensitivity. Periopheral oedema, fluid retention, bladder cancer
  23. what is the MODA of exenatide and what is the main side effects?
    GLP-1 mimic (antidiabetic) may cause pancreatitis
  24. in paediatrics what are the four areas of developmental milestones?
    gross motor, fine motor, hearing and language, social
  25. what antibiotics lower the seizure threshold and should be avoided in epileptics?
    • fluoroquinolones
    • what is contained in the foramen magnum?
    • medulla, meninges, spinal accessory nerves, sympathetic plexus, vertebral arteries, ant. + post spinal arteries
  26. what are the signs of a large VSD>
    heart failure, plumonary plethora, mid diastolic murmur (high mitral flow). Pulmonary hypertension, loud second heart sound
  27. what are the cardinal signs of delerium tremens?
    alcohol withdrawal, altered mental status and a hyperadrenergic state manifested by tachycardia, hypertension and hyperthermia
  28. what is ramsay hunt syndrome?
    severe pain before herpes and facial palsy
  29. what is the classic presentation of Bartter's syndrome?
    hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with urinary potassium wasting
  30. what are the cardinal signs of pellagra?
    diarrhoea, delusions, dermatitis
  31. what are the signs of wernicke's encephalopathy?
    ocular muscle palsy and dementia
  32. what are the signs of porphyria?
    cutaneous photosensitivity. Bullae develop on sun-exposed areas and lesions heal slowly, leaving scars.
  33. what are the signs of klinefelter's?
    tall stature, small testes, azoospermia and gynaecomastia
  34. which drug is most associated with idiopathic intercranial hypertension
    oral contraceptive, also nalixidic acid, nitrofurantoin
  35. what are the causes of SIADH?
    hypothyroid, bronchial cancer, pneumonia, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage
  36. how does a molar pregnancy present?
    enlarged uterus and vaginal bleeding in the first trimester; more rarely with a hypertensive crisis.
  37. what's the commonest cause of chest pain in a dialysis patient?
  38. what are the most important risk factors for hcc?
    hep B, hep C, cirrhosis
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2015-05-25 22:28:22
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