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  1. how does inhibin act?
    downregulates FSH synthesis and secretion
  2. what are the signs of amytriptilline overdose?
    drowsiness, dilated pupils, seizures, ventricular fibrillation, tachycardia
  3. what is the commonest cause of childhood fatal poisoning?
  4. where is relaxin produced and what does it do?
    produced in the corpus luteum, mediates hemodynamic changes in pregnancy e.g. increased cardiac output, increased renal blood flow, increased arterial compliance
  5. how does the valsalva maneuvre change the quality of murmur in HOCM?
    exaggerates the murmur - this is the exception
  6. name 4 autosomal dominant conditions
    huntington's, achondroplasia, MEN I, NF1
  7. which are the short external rotators of the hip?
    piriformis, obturator internus, the gemelli
  8. how is benzylpenicillin synergistic to gentamycin?
    benzylpenicillin breaks down the cell wall, allowing gentamycin to enter the cells and stop protein translation
  9. what is the typical appearance of acute anterior uveitis?
    cells and flare
  10. how is NMS treated?
    Dantrolene, bromocriptine or levodopa preparations
  11. what happens in radial nerve injury?
    wrist drop and a variable amount of sensory loss. The first dorsal webspace (and anatomical snuffbox) is usually involved.
  12. what happens in medial nerve injury?
    loss of sensation over the thumb, index, middle and the lateral half of the ring finger.
  13. what happens in an ulnar nerve injury?
    claw hand deformity and loss of sensation over the medial half of the ring finger and little finger.
  14. what are the signs of citrate toxicity and who is affected?
    blood recipients, haemodialysis pts: signs of hypocalcaemia e.g. chvostek sign, trousseau sign, tetany, hypotension, arrhythmias
  15. which hpv viruses cause genital warts?
    hpv 6 +11
  16. what is the difference in cyanosis presenatation between ToF and TPA?
    tetralogy of Fallot tends to cause cyanosis that gradually worsens over the first couple of months after birth and left sided pressures graudally increase. For this reason, the most common cause of cyanosis present after birth is transposition.
  17. how does azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil work?
    as a purine analogue to interrupt DNA synthesis and drive rapidly dividing cells to apoptosis
  18. how does sirolimus work?
    inhibits mTOR, which is downstream of IL-2
  19. how does tacrolimus work?
    calcineurin inhibitoor, stopping IL-2 production
  20. how does basiliximab work?
    anti-CD25 MAB, blocking IL-2
  21. what are the complications of primary hyperparathyroidism?
    osteoporosis, renal calculi, renal calcification
  22. what are the associations of acanthosis nigracans?
    endocrine (acromegaly, cushing's, DMII, PCOS) paraneoplastic (GI - stomach adenocarcinoma)
  23. what are specific signs of graves disease>
    proptosis, chemosis, exophthalmos, acropachy, thyroid bruit, myxoedema
  24. what is the inheritance and complications of haemochromatosis?
    autosomal recessive, cirrhosis, pyrophosphate arthropathy, diabetes, hypogonadism, hypopituitarism
  25. what signs suggest a cluster headache?
    ipsilateral lacrimation, nasal congestion, conjunctival injection, miosis, ptosis, lid oedema
  26. what is treatment for ectopic pregnancy?
    methotrexate injection or surgical
  27. how do seminomas and teratomas differ in terms of age of presentation
    The mnemonic Troops and Sergeants applies. Sergeants are usually 30+ hence S for seminoma. Troops are 18-25 and T for teratoma
  28. how is scabies treated?
    permethrin ointment, benzyl benzoate, and oral ivermectin for resistant cases
  29. what is the normal range for HbA1c?
    20-46 mmol/mol
  30. what percentage of burns requires admission to a burns unit?
    adults >20%, children and elderly with >10%
  31. what antibodies are implicated in autoimmune hepatitis?
    smooth muscle autoantibodies, and often ANA
  32. what are the cardinal signs of congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
    hyponatraemia and hypotension due to aldosterone deficiency
  33. on which chromosome is huntingdon's and what is inheritance pattern?
    chromosome 4 (autosomal dominant)
  34. which coronary artery supplies the lateral heart?
  35. which coronary artery supplies the anterior heart and septum?
    left anterior descending
  36. which coronary artery supplies the left heart?
    left main stem
  37. which coronary artery supplies the high left lateral heart, affecting leads I and aVL?
    obtuse marginal (branch of circumflex)
  38. which artery supplies the AV node?
    right coronary artery
  39. what renal side effects can occur with fluoxetine and amitriptyline respectively?
    SIADH, urinary retention
  40. what are the cardinal signs of neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
    fever, rigidity, altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, elevated CK
  41. what is treatment for neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
    mostly supportive (STOP offending drug), dantrolene, bromocriptine or levodopa may help.
  42. how might Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease present?
    dementia + myoclonic jerks
  43. how might normal pressure hydrocephalus present?
    dementia + gait ataxia + urinary incontinence
  44. what is the cause of saphena varix?
    incompetence of the femoral saphenous valve
  45. what is the action of denosumab?
    inhibition of RANK ligand
  46. what is the best way of checking for ovulation?
    a progesterone at 21 days of >30pmol/l
  47. how does nephrotic syndrome affect lipid profile?
    Cholesterol, LDLc and triglycerides will increase while HDLc concentrations will fall.
  48. apart from the cardinal signs, what other blood results are consistent with nephrotic syndrome?
    low gamma globulin, reduced complement, reduced transferrin causing microcytic anaemia, reduced vit D
  49. what are the signs of prader-willi syndrome?
    neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, mental handicap, small genitalia, hyperphagia, obesity
  50. which chromosome is affected in both prader-willi and angelman's syndrome?
  51. what is the murmur of congenital pulmonary valve stenosis and which syndrome is associated?
    left sided ejection systolic murmur radiating to back. Noonan's syndrome (short with delayed puberty)
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2 random card set
2015-05-25 22:33:49
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