what is the commonest cause of childhood fatal poisoning?
where is relaxin produced and what does it do?
produced in the corpus luteum, mediates hemodynamic changes in pregnancy e.g. increased cardiac output, increased renal blood flow, increased arterial compliance
how does the valsalva maneuvre change the quality of murmur in HOCM?
exaggerates the murmur - this is the exception
name 4 autosomal dominant conditions
huntington's, achondroplasia, MEN I, NF1
which are the short external rotators of the hip?
piriformis, obturator internus, the gemelli
how is benzylpenicillin synergistic to gentamycin?
benzylpenicillin breaks down the cell wall, allowing gentamycin to enter the cells and stop protein translation
what is the typical appearance of acute anterior uveitis?
cells and flare
how is NMS treated?
Dantrolene, bromocriptine or levodopa preparations
what happens in radial nerve injury?
wrist drop and a variable amount of sensory loss. The first dorsal webspace (and anatomical snuffbox) is usually involved.
what happens in medial nerve injury?
loss of sensation over the thumb, index, middle and the lateral half of the ring finger.
what happens in an ulnar nerve injury?
claw hand deformity and loss of sensation over the medial half of the ring finger and little finger.
what are the signs of citrate toxicity and who is affected?
blood recipients, haemodialysis pts: signs of hypocalcaemia e.g. chvostek sign, trousseau sign, tetany, hypotension, arrhythmias
which hpv viruses cause genital warts?
hpv 6 +11
what is the difference in cyanosis presenatation between ToF and TPA?
tetralogy of Fallot tends to cause cyanosis that gradually worsens over the first couple of months after birth and left sided pressures graudally increase. For this reason, the most common cause of cyanosis present after birth is transposition.
how does azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil work?
as a purine analogue to interrupt DNA synthesis and drive rapidly dividing cells to apoptosis
how does sirolimus work?
inhibits mTOR, which is downstream of IL-2
how does tacrolimus work?
calcineurin inhibitoor, stopping IL-2 production
how does basiliximab work?
anti-CD25 MAB, blocking IL-2
what are the complications of primary hyperparathyroidism?
osteoporosis, renal calculi, renal calcification
what are the associations of acanthosis nigracans?