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What is the focus of Healthy People 2010? What are the two goals of this document and four main focus areas?
- National goals for improving the health of Americans by 1990.
- Goal: Preventative services
- Goal: health protection
How would health be defined?
State of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infection
Describe the four models of health and illness.
- 1. Health Belief Model: the relationship between a person's beliefs and behavior. How clients will behave in relation to their health.
- 2. Health Promotion Model: Defines health as a positive, dynamic state, not merely in the absence of infection or disease. Increasing a person's well-being. This model describes a multidimensional nature of a person's as they interact within their environment to pursue health.
- 3. Basic Human Needs Model: This model uses Maslows hierarchy of needs, saying that certain human needs are more basic than others, that is that some needs must be meet before other needs fulfilling physiological needs before the needs of love and belonging.
- 4. Holistic Health Model: Attempts to create conditions that promote optimum health. Consider the clients the experts in their own health and respect patients subjective experience as relative in maintaining health and healing
Describe each of the needs levels in the hierarchy of needs model developed by Maslow? How
- can the nurse provide care using this model?
- Self-actualization: The highest expression of one's individual potential and allows for continual discovery of ones self. Once a patient has reached a goal in healing allow them to expand that goal higher to add another.
- Self-esteem: how ones feels about themselves
- Love and belonging needs: Patient feels love and belongs on this earth.
- Physical Safety/ Psychological Safety
- Physiological needs: Oxygen, fluids, nutrition, body temperature, elimination, shelter, sex
- A nurse can use this model by focusing on a client's needs rather than sticking to the strict hierarchy. Understand relationships between certain needs and factors that determine priorities for each client individually.
Define the stages of health behavior change and be able to describe the nursing implications for
- each stage.
- Precontemplation: not intending to make changes within 6 months. Client will not be interested in the information and may be defensive.
- Contemplation: considering to make a change within 6 months. Clients are more likely to accept information. Small resistance may be meet.
- Preparation: making small changes in preparation for change next month. Clients believe advantages outweigh disadvantages.
- Action: actively engaged in strategies to change behavior. Last up to 6 months. Identify barriers and facilitators of change.
- Maintenance: Sustained change over time. This begins months after action has started and does not end. Changes need to be integrated into pts lifestyle.
What are the two variables that influence health and health belief practices? Provide examples of each and describe how they allow nurses to plan and deliver individualized care.
- Internal Variables: Intellectual background and emotional factors. A persons knowledge, lack of knowledge, or background influence how a client thinks about health care. Also a clients stress or fear, their perceptions of symptoms and the nature of illness impact health beliefs and practices. Eg a pt is more likely to seek health care assistance than if he believe the symptoms are serious or life-threatening.
- Developmental Stage
- Intellectual Background
- Perception of Functioning
- Emotional Factors
- Spiritual Factors
- External values: Cultural background and socioeconomic factors. Cultural background influences beliefs, values and customs. Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors increase risk for illness and how a person defines illness. The visibility of the symptoms of an illness affects body image and illness behavior. Pts with visible symptom is often more likely to seek assistance.
- Family Practices
- Socioeconomic Factors
- Cultural Background
What are the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention levels in nursing care?
- Primary: true prevention that lowers the chances that a disease will develop . Used with clients that are healthy. Promotion of health through education programs, immunizations, and fitness.
- Secondary: persons who have health problems and have potential for complications or worsening their condition. Activities diagnose and promote intervention reducing severity. Focuses on those who have a disease or are at risk to develop a disease
- Tertiary: Occur when a defect or disability is permanent or irreversible. Activities directed at rehab rather than diagnosis and treatment.
What are risk factors?
- Any situation, habit, social or environmental condition, physiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition, or spiritual or other variable that increases vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or infection.
- Variables that increase the vulnerability of an individual or a group to an illness or accident
Describe and give examples of the four interrelated categories of risk factors.
- Age: Increases and decreases susceptibility to certain illnesses
- Environment: the environment in which we work and live can increase the likelihood of diseases incurring. What we eat, disease agents, and chemical exposure.
- Lifestyle: activities, habits, and practices involve risk.
- Genetic and physiological: being pregnant, stressed, or family history.
How can risk factors modification change health behaviors?
First by identifying the unhealthy behaviors and then promoting illness prevention activities in hopes to change the behavior.
What are teaching strategies the nurse can utilize to elicit lifestyle changes in their clients?
Practice active listening, ask clients about benefits and barriers, and reinforce the process of change.
Define illness and differentiate between acute illness and chronic illness.
- Illness: is a state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with previous experience. Not synonymous with disease.
- Acute illness is usually reversible, has short duration and often severe.
- Chronic illness persists, usually longer than 6 months and is irreversible. Chronic can effect functioning in one or more systems. Pt often fluctuates between maximal functioning and serious health relapses that may be life threatening.
Describe variables influencing illness and illness behavior.
- Internal: Perception of illness and nature of illness
- External: Visibility of symptoms, social group, cultural background, economics, and accessibility to health care Pg 75
- same that influence wellness
15. What impact does illness have on the client and their families?
- Behavioral and emotional changes
- Impact on body image
- Impact on self-concept
- Impact on family roles
- Impact on family dynamics