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What is critical thinking?
- A continuous process characterized by open-mindedness, continual inquiry, and perseverance, combined with a willingness to look at each unique patient situation and determine which identified assumptions are true and relevant
- Recognizing that an issue exists, analyzing information, evaluating information, and making conclusions
- It is an active, organized, cognitive process used to carefully examine ones own thinking and the thinking of others. It involves recognizing that a problem exists, analyzing the issue, evaluating info and making conclusions. Pg 216
What skills are involved in the process of critical thinking and how can they be applied to nursing practice?
- Interpretation: be orderly, categorize, look for patterns, clarify data
- Analysis: be open minded, no careless assumptions.
- Inference: look at meaning/significance of findings.
- Evaluation: look objectively, use criteria to determine results of actions, reflect on self.
- Explanation: support findings & conclusions, use knowledge/experience to choose strategies.
- Self-regulation: reflect on experiences, identify ways to self-improve, define success. Pg 193 table 15-1
What concepts are important for the critical thinker and what critical thinking behavior is demonstrated by these concepts?
- Truth seeking: true meaning of situation, be courageous/honest & objective when asking questions.
- Open-mindness: tolerant of diff views, sensitive to own prejudices, respect diff opinions.
- Analyticity: analize problematic situations, anticipate results/consequences, value reason, use evidence based knowledge.
- Systematicity: organized, focused, work hard
- Self-confidence: trust own reasoning process.
- Inquisitiveness: eager to acquire knowledge & learn explanations even when applications are not clear, value learning for learnings sake.
- Maturity: multiple solutions acceptable, reflect upon own judgements, have cognitive maturity. Pg 217
What are three levels of critical thinking and how would a person demonstrate their thinking ability within each of the levels?
- Basic: the nurse trusts experts, has concrete thinking, lack of experience = follows each step of procedure with no deviation.
- Complex: separates self from authorities, analyze/examine choices independently, alternate solutions exist.
- Commitment: experience/knowledge allow to anticipate choices, accountability accepted, examine results.
Describe critical thinking competencies. Which are specific to clinical decision making?
- Specific Knowledge base
- Nursing process
- General critical thinking: Scientific method, problem solving & decision making.
- Specific critical thinking: diagnostic reasoning, clinical inference & clinical decision making
- Pg 195-196
What is the relationship between critical thinking and the nursing process?
Involves general and specific competencies specifically focused on a clients needs. Pg 197
What is the purpose of the nursing process and what are the five steps used in this model?
- To diagnose & treat human responses to actual or potential health problem
What are the five components of critical thinking in nursing?
- Knowledge base
- Nursing process
What are the attitudes for critical thinking and how are they applied to nursing practice? Be able to identify examples of each.
- Confidence: introduce yourself, speak with conviction. If not you focus on self instead of client
- Thinking independently: consider wide range of ideas/concepts when forming opinions, raise questions about your practice.
- Fairness: no bias or prejudice, treat the obese regardless of your feelings about it.
- Responsibility/accountability: responsible for performing based on standards of practice, no shortcuts.
- Risk taking: desirable when outcome is positive, consider options, analyze danger, proceed in well-reasoned thoughtful & logical manner.
- Discipline: follows orderly systematic approach, instead of just 0 to 10 for pain get more specific.
- Perseverance-continue to look for more resources until problem solved, PT unable to speak try writing or use of bell.
- Creativity: original thinking, find solutions outside standard routines of care but stay within standards of practice. Pt with pain in knees could have chair raised on blocks to ease use.
- Curiosity: always ask why? Motivated to question family/read literature or consult others.
- Integrity: question own knowledge, build trust & be willing to admit mistakes.
- Humility: admit to limitations in knowledge, seek others when unsure.
What does it mean to have intellectual standards and how can they be applied to the nursing pro
- Guideline/principle for rational thought, applied when using nursing process; apply preciseness/accuracy & consistency to ensure sound decisions.
- The other 11 int standards are clear,specific,relevant,plausable,consistent,logical,deep,broad,complete, significant, fair. adequate?
How do professional standards promote the highest level of nursing care?
Excellent nursing practice is reflection of ethical standards, focus on client values/beliefs helps make just/fair/faithful/beneficial decisions.
In what ways can the nurse develop critical thinking skills?
- Connect knowledge & theory with practice, use reflective journals to define & express clinical experience
- Use concept maps for visual representation of clients problems and their relationship to one another. Concept mapping synthesizes data about assessment/diagnosis/interventions/needs and evaluations.
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