MA chapter #48

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MA chapter #48
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2010-08-18 16:14:12
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medical assisting
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  1. What is the percent of blood volume is plasma?
    55%
  2. What is the other name for white blood cells?
    leukocytes
  3. What other functions could a phlebotomist be trained to perform besides drawing blood?
    many phlebotomists perform simple tests on blood samples at the patient's hospital bedside or in close proximity to the patient. trained to perform many patient care functions.
  4. What is the ABO system?
    classification system for four blood groups
  5. What is the abbreviation for carbon dioxide?
    CO2
  6. What does CBC stand for?
    complete blood (cell) count
  7. When would a patient need to sign a consent form for blood to be drawn?
    chain of custody
  8. The risk of exposure to blood - borne pathogens id greatly reduced when using precautions?
    Universal
  9. Are all states the same in what they allow MA's to do?
    NO
  10. What indicates the additives and therefore the tests to be done on lab blood samples?
    color - coded stopper
  11. What causes difficulty in collecting enought blood for an adequate sample?
    Children, elderly patients, fainting patients, and difficult patients
  12. Can a patient refuse a blood test?
    Yes
  13. What is the WBC or leukocytes count used to identify?
    leukemia, infection, and leukocytosis
  14. Define phlebotomy
    the insertion of a needle or cannula (small tube) into a vein for the purpose of withdrawling blood.
  15. Define hematology
    the study of blood
  16. What is plasma? Define it.
    the liquid in which other components are suspended
  17. Defined formed elements.
    The red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets comprise the other 45% of blood volume, which is know as the formed elements
  18. What is hemoglobin?
    a protein that contains iron and bonds with and carries oxygen to cells; the main component of erythrocytes
  19. What protects the body against infection?
    leukocytes
  20. ELISA and Western Blot tests are used to diagnose what?
    HIV
  21. What percentage of plasma is water?
    90% water
  22. Define serum.
    the clear, yellow liquid that remains after a blood clot forms
  23. What is fibrinogen?
    a protein found in plasma that is important for blood clotting
  24. What is coagulation?
    the process by which a clot forms in blood
  25. Define hemolysis and what can it cause after an incompatible blood transfusion?
    hemolysis is the rupturing of RBC's, which releases hemoglobin. The released hemoglobin can block the renal tubules and cause kidney failure and death.
  26. What is special about type AB positive blood?
    universal receipents
  27. What is the most common way to cleanse the skin before drawing blood? And can it cause an inaccurate test result?
    Alcohol swabs, yes, the alcohol could interfere with some tests.
  28. What do you tell a patient to do to prepare for a glucose tolerence test?
    They may not eat anything 12 hour prior to having the test. They should not have coffee or cigarettes the morning of the test. They should omit oral medications known to affect glucose levels for three days prior to the test.
  29. Name the most common sites for venipuncture. Be able to label them!!
    Median cubital vein MIDDLE, Cephalic vein OUTSIDE, Basilic vein INSIDE
  30. What is the best way to protect yourself during a phlebotomy procedure?
    PPE, Gloves are the first line of defense, goggles and face sheilds
  31. What is the best way to prepare tge site for venipuncture?
    clean it with alcohol. Some tests may be altered by the presence of alcohol in which case you would clean it with an antiseptic wipe.
  32. Describe the evacuation system of blood collection and what is a benefit of using it?
    vacutainer system uses interchangeable collectiontubes that allow you draw several blood specimen from the same venipuncture site. Tubes are calibrated by evacuation to collect the exact amount of blood required.
  33. What finger and where on the finger do you usually perform capillary puncture?
    Adults - great (middle) finger or the ring finger, use patients non dominent hand. Puncture should be made slightly off center on the pad of the fingertip. Infants - usually performed on one of the outer edges of the under - side of the heel.
  34. The needle and syringe system are usually used when?
    If the patient has small or fragile veins.
  35. When do you use a lancet?
    In the capillary puncture technique when only a small amount of blood is required.
  36. What color tube is used for blood glue testing? What peroid of time does the hemoglobin A1c test cover?
    Gray test tube. Once (hgBA1c) is formed it remains for the life if the RBC - 90 - 120 days.
  37. What color tube requires no additive?
    Red
  38. The heel is the best place for drawing blood on whom?
    infants
  39. Know the importance of gathering you supplies and samples quickly on children?
    to avoid alarming the child with the site of blood-collection tubes
  40. What is the importance when drawing for the elderly?
    changes in skin condition often make elderly patients more prone to brusing and other injuries. Decreased circulation may make if difficult to collect enough blood for adequate sampling. Elderly patients with impaired healing may have trouble understanding instruction and answering questions. Patients with dementia may also be unable to understand what are you saying.
  41. Define hemophilla
    a disorder where blood does not coagulate at a wound or puncture site
  42. How many times can you draw blood before seeking assistance
    2 times
  43. What is a BUN used for?
    blood urea nitrogen test used for determining kidney disorders
  44. What test is used to identify anemia?
    RBC count
  45. What does a test of potassium and sodium tell us?
    fluid electrolyte balance
  46. What does total cholesteral test tell us?
    hyperlipoproteinemia, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis
  47. What is identified by finding uric acid?
    gout leukemia
  48. What is the normal blood glucose level?
    74-120 mg/dl
  49. What is hematocrit determination?
    It identifies how much of the volume of the sample is made up of RBC's after the sample has been centrifuged; express as a percentage
  50. Define hemocytometer
    (from chapter 45) a slide calibrated to the exact mesurements needed to count blood cells and sperm under a microscope
  51. Define morphology
    the study of the shape or from of objects

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