SOC100 Final

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cbennett
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303340
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SOC100 Final
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2015-05-29 01:03:11
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Sociology Final
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Sociology
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soc final
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  1. stereotypes (+ or -); a shortcut for making conclusions about a group of people, selectively

    + example: black athletes
    prejudice and discrimination
  2. prejudice is a
    belief
  3. discrimination is the
    behavior
  4. the expression of racist attitudes or behaviors by individual people
    personal discrimination
  5. racism built into customs and laws, penalizing people by race not just class
    institutionalized discrimination
  6. beliefs that assert the inferiority of one sex and justify discrimination on the basis of this inferiority
    sexism
  7. the privilege of heterosexual relationships in society
    heterosexism
  8. culture in which heterosexuality is accepted as the norm
    heteronormative
  9. belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior
    racism
  10. genetically inherited characteristics
    race
  11. people sharing common origin and culture
    ethnicity
  12. How do social scientists view "race"
    sociologists view race a social construction
  13. a convenient way to categorize people (example: white and asian grouped by continent)
    panethnic labels
  14. a constantly evolving social construction, tied to gov't agendas and demographic shifts, inherently unstable
    race as a floating signifier
  15. a group that is perceived this way and which carries resentment and is confining and oppressive
    model minority
  16. patricia hill collins
    matrix of domination
  17. life chances are influenced not simply by class, race/ethnicity, gender, or sex but also
    · education, age, religion, talent, beauty, intelligence, charisma or lack thereof
    matrix of domination
  18. socio-cultural constructions maintained through social institutions like the family, religion, education, the state, military, health care, and the mass media
    sex and gender roles
  19. biologically male or female
    sex
  20. masculinity and femininity
    gender
  21. a socially disapproved  behavior - the violation of some agreed upon norm
    deviance
  22. some human behavior is inherently proper and good, while other behavior is obviously improper, immoral, and bad
    absolutist (ethnocentric) view of deviance
  23. socially constructed - deviance is not inherent in any particular act, belief, or condition
    relativist (culturally relative) view of deviance
  24. behavior that was once classified as deviant is now redefined as a psychiatric disease, disorder, or syndrome
    medicalization of deviance
  25. corporate, financial type crimes - more economically costly
    white collar crime
  26. 3 reasons white collar crime is not punished like street crimes
    • penalty doesn't outweigh the crime
    • not investigated or doesn't go to trial just paid off
    • prosecutors come from that world
  27. street crime and personal property crimes - more heavily punished
    blue collar crimes
  28. 2 reasons street crimes (blue collar) are more heavily punished than white collar crimes
    • referred to as "class crimes"
    • racism
  29. ranking systems for groups of people that perpetuate unequal rewards and life chances
    (example: defaulting mortgage video)
    social stratification
  30. stratification system based on inherited positions with little movement allowed across strata
    caste system
  31. groups of people who share a similar economic position in society based on their wealth and income
    industrial and post-industrial service societies
  32. movement of people from one class to another
    social mobility
  33. passive income (don't have to work)
    upper class
  34. largest group
    important in defining US culture (moods, political direction, values)
    upper and lower defined by status, profession, income
    middle class
  35. factory, clerical, low-paying sales jobs
    HS education
    hourly pay
    working class
  36. working poor, minimum wage earners
    chronically unemployed
    absolute poverty vs. relative poverty
    poor or lower class
  37. off the economic ladder
    homeless, panhandlers
    underclass
  38. General trends in immigration
    • · Today: mexico, latin America, china, philipines
    • · Yester year: overwhelmingly from Europe
  39. theoretical
    perspective that views the structure of society as a source of inequality that
    always benefits some groups at the expense of other groups
    conflict theory
  40. theoretical perspective that posits that social
    institutions are structured to maintain stability and order in society
    structural functionism
  41. theoretical perspective that explains society
    and social structure through and examination of the micro-level, personal, day
    to day exchanges of people as individuals, pairs, or groups
    symbolic interactionist theory
  42. reasons for immigration
    • · Economic opportunity
    • · The lure of employment and a better life = improved life
    • chances
    • · Family reunification
    • · Favored career status
    • · Escape from political/religious persecution
  43. Name a few social responses to immigration
    • immigrants built the infrastructure of the USA
    • filled unwanted jobs, improved lives of many
    • potential to create friction between US and immigrants
    • durkheim connected some period of rapid, forced, chaotic migration to ANOMIE
  44. people’s lives all around the world become economically, politically, environmentally,and culturally interconnected (travel, internet, media)
    globalism
  45. Cultural significance of ‘middle class’
    important in defining US culture (moods, political direction, values…)
  46. private ownership of capital. Economic system which
    production and distribution are privately or corporately owned
    capitalism
  47. accommodations to make workers happy – private,
    employer-based social welfare provisions (USA)
    welfare capitalism
  48. State ownership of capital (the state owns more) – People’s
    Republic of China, Czech, East Germany
    socialism
  49. support legal entitlements (universal healthcare, access to
    housing, workers compensation and education, childcare and elderly care). Pay a
    lot of taxes but get more benefits. (Europe and Japan)
    social democracy
  50. Name the 4 types of political economic systems
    • capitalism
    • welfare capitalism
    • socialism
    • social democracy
  51. belief that poor people, resigned to their position in society, develop a unique value structure to deal with their lack of success
    culture-of-poverty theory
  52. (don't benefit your own class) situation in which people in the lower classes come to accept a belief system that harms them; wealthy influence less wealthy to accept the system which socializes us through social
    institutions (gov’t, media, law…)
    false consciousness
  53. Developing a sense of your own class. Class acting on behalf of itself (occupy wall street)
    class consciousness
  54. an organization of people committed to create, stop, or reverse social change
    social movements
  55. attempts to change limited aspects of a society but does not seek to alter or replace major social institutions; often seeking inclusion
    (feminist or gay rights)
    reform movement
  56. designed to prevent or reverse the changes sought or accomplished by an earlier movement (Taliban, ISIS)
    counter-movement
  57. an attempt to overthrow the entire system or a major institution such as government (Cuban revolution)
    revolutionary movement
  58. control of mating to ensure that “defective” genes of troublesome individuals will not be passed on to future generations
    eugenics
  59. refers to people born at roughly the same time tending to experience life course events of social rites of passage (puberty, marriage, childbearing, death…)
    cohort effects
  60. refers to members of the same birth cohort also sharing a common history (place in time and the historical events the members live through) – WWII, 9-11…
    period effects
  61. we carry societal norms in our heads and act according to our social institutions. Socialization
    makes us good citizens. We calculate the sanctions, risks, and benefits.
    deterring deviance through social control
  62. Name some social constructions of crimes and illegality
    · crime is determined by those who make laws and wield power

    · what we regard as illegal depends on how we view the person committing the act

    · poor and minority tend to be more highly punished

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