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What is the order of DNA replication?
- Transcription = DNA to mRNA
- Translation = mRNA to protein
What class of drugs attack 30s ribosomes?
What class of drugs attack 50s ribosomes?
Where are steroids produced?
What part of the cell is affected in tay sach's disease?
What part of the cell is affected in leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and kearns-sayre syndrome?
What is the main ion inside the cell?
What is the ratio of Na/K pumped out of the cell?
What is the main ion outside the cell?
What is depolarization?
Inside of cell becomes more positive = action potential
What is hyperpolarization?
Inside of cell becomes more negative = stalled action
What are the concentrations of intracellular, extracellular compartments and plasma in the body?
25L, 12L, 3L
What do A1 receptors do?
- A+ MUScles are drinking their calcium
- Increase intracellular calcium (together with muscarinic)
What are the locations of A1 receptors?
- Radial iris dilator
- Vascular SM
- GI sphincters
What do A2 receptors do?
- Decrease cAMP
- Inhibitory response in heart, elsewhere = sympathetic
what do B1 receptors do?
- Stimulate adenylyl cyclase
- Increase cAMP
Where are the locations of B1 receptors?
- Salivary glands
- Adipose tissue
What do B2 receptors do?
What are the locations of B2 receptors?
- GI tract
- Bladder wall
- Vascular SM
What is the only receptor to act on Na/K channels?
- A NaK for being unique
What are zonula occludens?
- Impermeable Tight belt junctions around entire cell
- BAB & BBB
What are zonula adherens?
Junctions that allow for intercellular passage
What are macula occludens?
Impermeable spot welds
What are gap junctions?
Channels connected to other channels for rapid electrical transfer = HDMI port
What type of cells are binuclear?
- Cardiac muscle
- Urinary tract epithelial cells
What type of cells are multinuclear?
- Skeletal muscle
What type of cells are anuclear?
What is contained within the nucleolus?
What does the nucleolus do?
Responsible for production of rRNA
What is rRNA?
- Found in ribosomes
- Responsible for protein translation
What is tRNA?
- Responsible for translation
- Which is transfer of amino acids to a growing protein
What do hepatocytes do?
- Storage and breakdown of glycogen
- Detox of lipid soluble drugs
What do ribosomes do?
What does smooth er do?
- Lipid and steroid production
- Produces fatty acids
What is rough ER responsible for?
What does the golgi apparatus do?
- Modify and package proteins from rough ER to outside of cell
What do lysosomes do?
What does the mitochondria do?
What do microtubules do?
What do intermediate filaments do?
- Act as a super highway to/from nucleus
- Gives resistance against external pressure on cell
What is the intracellular charge at equilibrium?