Chapter 1 E280
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Population
population is everyone in a section (depends on the question)

Sample (most of the time)
is the subset of the population

Parameter
dealing with population

statistic
dealing with sample

Descriptive Statistics
when you take a sample and describe those people or results

inferential Statistics
When you use the results to make an educated guess

time series data
when you are measuring one concept and conpairing it across time daily , weekly, or monthly...

crosssectional data
you are get more than one piece of information and comparing the two

Qualitative Variable ^{}(proxy)
 (Categorical) some question with the answer inĀ words. ex what your favorite color?
 proxy any use of number is simply as a proxy for a verbal concept

quantitative variable Discrete vs Continuous
 (numerical) questions that deal with numbers
 discrete is a countable, whole number (ex number of ppl in class)
 continuoustheoretically can assume an infinite number of values within a interval (ex dollars, weight, money,investment return)

Nominal vs Ordinal Scale
 (Categorical)
 Nominal the order is not agreed order, simply names/labels (ex what's your favorite store? gender, color of shirt)
 Ordinal labels with a commonly recognized order to themĀ (ex class standing, level of satisfaction)

Interval vs Ratio scale
 (Numerical)
 intervalintervals have meaning, but there is no "absolute 0" (ex ACT Scores, temperature, clock time)
 ratio there is an "absolute 0" defined such that ratio comparisons are accurate (ex class exam scores, money,height, length of time)

for qualitative (categorical) data what kind of charts can we use?
 Pie charts
 Bar charts
 column chart

name three type of graph used to display numerical data