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population is everyone in a section (depends on the question)
Sample (most of the time)
is the subset of the population
dealing with population
dealing with sample
when you take a sample and describe those people or results
When you use the results to make an educated guess
time series data
when you are measuring one concept and con-pairing it across time daily , weekly, or monthly...
you are get more than one piece of information and comparing the two
Qualitative Variable (proxy)
- (Categorical) some question with the answer in words. ex what your favorite color?
- proxy- any use of number is simply as a proxy for a verbal concept
quantitative variable- Discrete vs Continuous
- (numerical) questions that deal with numbers
- discrete- is a countable, whole number (ex number of ppl in class)
- continuous-theoretically can assume an infinite number of values within a interval (ex dollars, weight, money,investment return)
Nominal vs Ordinal Scale
- Nominal- the order is not agreed order, simply names/labels (ex what's your favorite store? gender, color of shirt)
- Ordinal- labels with a commonly recognized order to them (ex class standing, level of satisfaction)
Interval vs Ratio scale
- interval-intervals have meaning, but there is no "absolute 0" (ex ACT Scores, temperature, clock time)
- ratio- there is an "absolute 0" defined such that ratio comparisons are accurate (ex class exam scores, money,height, length of time)
for qualitative (categorical) data what kind of charts can we use?
- Pie charts
- Bar charts
- column chart
name three type of graph used to display numerical data