Biochemistry summer credit
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Biochemistry summer credit
from the MCQ tests
The amino acid which melanin is produced from is:
Tyrosine - from phenylanine
Which one is part of the ketone bodies
Which markers is specifically for the heart
Thyroxine (T4) is formed by condensation of two molecules of:
Most active form of thyroid hormone
Metabolic acidosis is not caused because of
Catecholamines are degraded from
Cytokines represent an important component of the communication between cells of the immune response to potential pathogens. Their function is antagonistic which means that:
Two different cytokines negate mutually their signals
presentation to T cells
indigestible by proteases
Glycerol from TGA
Fuel for adipocytes
Which of the following substances provides the acidic pH of skin?
α-Amylase is found in the:
Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) is generated from:
Which neurotransmitter belong to biogenic amines?
Which of the following
belong to the effects of growth hormone?
The major aldosterone carrier in blood is:
serum albumin - lots of things (mineralcorticoid)
AMP-activated protein kinase
inhibits anabolic processes and activates the catabolic ones
Fibrin clot formation requires
The kidneys decrease the internal acidity mainly by excreting
Which pathway is activated by insulin?
Synthesis of fatty acids
The secretion of glucagon is not stimulated by
increased concentration of glucose
Which process accompanies the light absorption in the photoreceptors?
Decreased amount of cGMP
What are foam cells?
Macrophages that destroy/engulf LDL
Among the factors determining the usability of markers of myocardial damage include:
A marker of progression of atherosclerosis:
What is not organ-specific in autoimmune disease Graves-Basedow?
What causes metabolic alkalosis?
Loss of Cl⁻
Diarrhea - loss of H⁺
What makes the osteoclast have a low pH under the crimped rim?
The most common type of local regulation of blood flow:
What does the liver not make:
Pheochromocytoma is the tumor of what?
Which glucose transporters are insulin dependent?
In oxyhemoglobin the iron:
Doesn't change its valence and stays in Fe²⁺ state
What is not true:
Malate's OH group is reduced to form oxaloacetate
Ligand binding to membrane receptors is associated with activity of which enzymes:
pH values at physiological state
Vitamin K is an important cofactor participating in:
Glutamic acid carboxylation
The cofactor for prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase is:
What is not an intermediate of epinephrine?
NADH transport through malate shuttle yields:
Which AA is needed for serotonin synthesis?
What is not true about pathologic amyloid structure:
converts from beta to alpha conformation
What has ATPase activity:
myosin globular head
What is true about enzyme multisubstrate ordered type of mechanism:
forms ternary complex
What is not true about xenobiotics:
they can diffuse freely across cell's membrane
What is formed by oxidation glc on C6?
Choline contains what group?
What kind of enzyme breaks down acetylcholine?
Acetylcholinesterase or cholinesterase
Motif EF-hands is characteristic for binding proteins:
What is the active form of vitamin D?
1,25 OH vitamin D
The first substrate of pentose phosphate pathway:
Which metabolic pathway is present in erythrocytes:
synthesis of glutathione
Marker of bone formation:
What does not contribute in correcting protein conformation:
Regulation of beta oxidation:
Chronic effects of diabetes:
non-enzymatic glycation of proteins
Most potent form of thyroid hormone:
How is T4 formed?
condensation of two molecules of diiodotyrosine
What happens to glycerol after TAG hydrolysis in adipose tissue?
released into blood
Antigen presenting cells:
From what is glucagon not stimulated:
high glucose levels
Hormone sensitive lipase:
hydrolysis fat from adipose tissue
Needed for formation of mercapturic acid:
What are free radicals:
CO₂ binds to what in lungs:
Opsonins plays a role in part with:
Degradation of glutathione conjugate arises:
Which collagen type is synthesized by hypertrophic chondrocytes?
Collagen type X - fibrillary mesh in hypertrophic chondrocytes
Which collagen type does not belong to fibrillary collagens?
collagen type IV - non-fibrillar, mesh/basal lamina
What does not apply to CRP:
acute conditions are reduced
Among atherogenic factors include:
Osteoporosis may cause:
inhibits the anabolic and catabolic processes activated
Markers for bone degradation/resorption:
Ca (urinary calcium)
pyridinoline and hydroxypyridonoline
What is not a conjugate of xenobiotics:
Which of these elements do not form radicals:
What is the function of melanin?
protection of keratinocyte nucleus from UV radiation
Markers of liver damage:
The most common lipid surfactant:
Troponin complex is used to:
calcium binding mediates contraction
What does not buffer blood:
Why in atherosclerosis and inflammatory bb can LDL penetrate the endothelium?
not repel them
What is formed in the lungs:
In the liver, D4 and D5
The principle component of epidermal cells is:
What can manifest from osteoporosis:
For PTH does not apply:
hypocalcemia inhibits secretion
Buffer that is physiologically effective:
What is a liver function:
storage of TAG
What is not true for skin:
the emergence of an active form of vitamin D
Risk factors for cardiac ischemia:
What does not stimulate the release of glucagon:
high glucose concentration
The most abundant protein in bone:
The main source for energy lungs:
What lyses fibrin:
What prevents hypoglycemia:
Renal excretion of what ensures stable internal environment:
What is gamma-glutamyl a marker for:
obstructive diseases of biliary tract
What is not reflected in liver disorders:
Markers for myocardial necrosis:
creatinkinase + isoenzymes
What in the heart converts pyruvate to lactate?
The coagulation factor XIII(13) is a:
transglutaminase - cross linking of fibrin soft->hard
Conjugated bilirubin is what?
bilirubin conjugated with glucuronic acid
What mainly causes atherosclerosis?
is a weak mineralcorticoid
Monooxygenasesystem cytochrome P450
participates in conjugation of steroid hormones
is metabolic process located typically in the liver
Which of the following belong to the positive acute phase reactants:
C-reactive Protein(CRP, compliment component C3 and C4
The placentallactogens = human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS)
Affect the metabolism of fatty acids and glucose in mothers body - decrease maternal glucose utilization + increase lipolysis
a protease cleaving angiotensin I from angiotensinogen
The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue is not increased by:
Select correct statement for pregnenolone:
It is a precursor of minercorticoids
Is used for the production of PVC
Has estrogenic activity
Decrease albumin concentrations can be caused by:
decrease synthesis in liver - cirrhosis/hepatitis
increase protein loss - through kidney
Plasma cells are:
terminal differentiation stage of B lymphocytes
Activated macrophages are able to increase their ability to select and kill pathogens, but they are also very important in:
starting cytotoxic T cell activation - binding of CD8 with an MHC type I molecule + antigen
Which hormone does not belong to the peptide hormones?
prostracyclin - prostragladin lipid molecule
Antibody specifically binds to one or more very similar antigens by means of:
Hypervariable regions of both heavy and light chains
Which of the following amino acids is predominant in collagen?
Glycine - every 3rd AA
What is the energy source of skeletal muscle?
Phosphocreatine -energy reservoir for ATP in muscle/neurons/spermatozoa
The disaccharide repeating unit of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid consists of?
Glucoronate and N-acetylglucosamine
25-OH D₃ is called:
Majority of coagulation factors are:
What biochemical markers is most suitable for estimation of pro-inflammatory state related to the total body fat amount?
Which of the following compounds participates in short term central regulation of CVS:
Atrial natriuretic peptide - vasodilator/decrease sodium reuptake in kidney->decrease BP
De Ritis ratio:
Is the AST/ALT ratio, value>1 suggest necrosis of hepatocytes
Uncoupling proteins in brown fat mitochondria:
Short-cicuit the proton gradient - allows energy to create heat
Does the adipose tissue have its own endocrine function?
Yes - inflammatory hormones can always be secreted
Which statements regarding osteoclasts is not true:
they are mononuclear cells - multinucleated
Proteoglycans differ from glycoproteins in:
Sugars modified by sulpho groups - keratin sulfate + chondroitin sulfate
What causes the triglyceride accumulation in liver?
Insulin resistance - causes hypertriglyceridemia
Glutamine is mainly produced by the:
skeletal muscle - from branched chained amino acids/lungs + brain use to remove
Are the major source for skeletal muscle
Which of the following statements is correct regarding elastin:
Its cross linkages are derived from side chain lysine residues – hydroxylysine(alysine)
Recommended daily amount of calcium intake for male and premenopausal female is:
Which of the following molecules do not belong to the markers routinely used in myocardial infarction diagnosis:
Myosin light chains
Which of the following belong to the ketone bodies:
Which of the following does not belong to the products of proopiomelanocortin
Melatonin– from tryptophan
MHC complex class II is not found in
Endocrine disruptors are:
Exogenous compounds that influence hormonal systems
Is the most abundant plasma protein
The compliment cascade triggered by three different pathways joining at the key point of the complement system:
Splitting C3 into C3a and C3b
Play an important role in transport of various substances - albumin etc.
Participate in defense organisms - immunoglobins
The role of melanin:
protection of nuclei of keratinocytes from UV-B
Homovanillic acid is the degradation product of:
Which of the following statements fits best the term innate immune response?
its a rapid specific response
Plasma cells are:
terminal differentiation stage of B lymphocytes
Thyeoglubulin is a:
storage form of thyroxine
The edema observed in patients with non-calorie protein malnutrition is caused by:
reduced protein synthesis in the liver
Vasopressin and oxytocin contain:
9 amino acid residues
An important step in the inactivation and excretion of all classes of steroid hormones (except vitamin D₃) is:
NADPH-oxidase of leukocytes produces:
Which of the following amino acid side chain is involved in the formation of O-glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide chain and the protein?
has estrogenic activity