Biochemistry summer credit

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Biochemistry summer credit
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2015-05-29 17:54:42
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biochemistry
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Biochemistry II
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from the MCQ tests
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  1. The amino acid which melanin is produced from is:
    Tyrosine - from phenylanine
  2. Which one is part of the ketone bodies
    β-hydroxybutyric acid
  3. Which markers is specifically for the heart
    LDH1
  4. Thyroxine (T4) is formed by condensation of two molecules of:
    diiodotyrosine
  5. Most active form of thyroid hormone
    I₃
  6. Metabolic acidosis is not caused because of
    Vomiting
  7. Catecholamines are degraded from
    monoamine-oxidase
  8. Cytokines represent an important component of the communication between cells of the immune response to potential pathogens. Their function is antagonistic which means that:
    Two different cytokines negate mutually their signals
  9. Macrophages
    presentation to T cells
  10. Prions
    indigestible by proteases
  11. Glycerol from TGA
    Fuel for adipocytes
  12. Which of the following substances provides the acidic pH of skin?
    Lactic acid
  13. α-Amylase is found in the:
    • pancreatic juice
    • saliva
  14. Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) is generated from:
    arginine
  15. Which neurotransmitter belong to biogenic amines?
    Acetylcholine
  16. Which of the following does not belong to the effects of growth hormone?
    Decreased lipolysis
  17. The major aldosterone carrier in blood is:
    serum albumin - lots of things (mineralcorticoid)
  18. AMP-activated protein kinase 
    inhibits anabolic processes and activates the catabolic ones
  19. Fibrin clot formation requires
    Ca²⁺
  20. The kidneys decrease the internal acidity mainly by excreting 
    dihydrogen phosphate
  21. Which pathway is activated by insulin?
    Synthesis of fatty acids
  22. The secretion of glucagon is not stimulated by
    increased concentration of glucose
  23. Which process accompanies the light absorption in the photoreceptors?
    Decreased amount of cGMP
  24. What are foam cells?
    Macrophages that destroy/engulf LDL
  25. Among the factors determining the usability of markers of myocardial damage include:
    Localization bb
  26. A marker of progression of atherosclerosis:
    Apolipoproteins
  27. What is not organ-specific in autoimmune disease Graves-Basedow?
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  28. What causes metabolic alkalosis?
    • Loss of Cl⁻
    • Diarrhea - loss of H⁺
  29. Insulin is:
    a dimer
  30. What makes the osteoclast have a low pH under the crimped rim?
    Proton pump
  31. The most common type of local regulation of blood flow:
    myogenic regulation
  32. What does the liver not make:
    immunoglobulins
  33. Pheochromocytoma is the tumor of what?
    adrenal glands
  34. Which glucose transporters are insulin dependent?
    GLUT 4
  35. In oxyhemoglobin the iron:
    Doesn't change its valence and stays in Fe²⁺ state
  36. What is not true:
    Malate's OH group is reduced to form oxaloacetate
  37. Ligand binding to membrane receptors is associated with activity of which enzymes:
    Kinases
  38. pH values at physiological state
    7.40 +/- 0.04
  39. Vitamin K is an important cofactor participating in:
    Glutamic acid carboxylation
  40. The cofactor for prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase is:
    Fe²⁺
  41. What is not an intermediate of epinephrine?
    serotonin
  42. NADH transport through malate shuttle yields:
    2.5 ATPs
  43. Which AA is needed for serotonin synthesis?
    Tryptophan
  44. What is not true about pathologic amyloid structure:
    converts from beta to alpha conformation
  45. What has ATPase activity:
    myosin globular head
  46. What is true about enzyme multisubstrate ordered type of mechanism:
    forms ternary complex
  47. What is not true about xenobiotics:
    they can diffuse freely across cell's membrane
  48. What is formed by oxidation glc on C6?
    glucuronic acid
  49. Defensins are:
    polypeptides neutrophils
  50. Choline contains what group?
    Hydroxyl
  51. What kind of enzyme breaks down acetylcholine?
    Acetylcholinesterase or cholinesterase
  52. Motif EF-hands is characteristic for binding proteins:
    calcium
  53. What is the active form of vitamin D?
    1,25 OH vitamin D
  54. The first substrate of pentose phosphate pathway:
    3-glucose-6-phosphate
  55. Cytochrome P450
    monoxygenase
  56. Which metabolic pathway is present in erythrocytes:
    synthesis of glutathione
  57. Marker of bone formation:
    • Alkaline phosphatase
    • Osteocalcin
    • P1NP
  58. What does not contribute in correcting protein conformation:
    histones
  59. Regulation of beta oxidation:
    inhibitors CPTI
  60. Chronic effects of diabetes:
    non-enzymatic glycation of proteins
  61. Most potent form of thyroid hormone:
    T3
  62. How is T4 formed?
    condensation of two molecules of diiodotyrosine
  63. What happens to glycerol after TAG hydrolysis in adipose tissue?
    released into blood
  64. Antigen presenting cells:
    dendritic cells
  65. From what is glucagon not stimulated:
    high glucose levels
  66. Ghrelin:
    Apetite stimulating
  67. Hormone sensitive lipase:
    hydrolysis fat from adipose tissue
  68. Needed for formation of mercapturic acid:
    Glutathione
  69. What are free radicals:
    • superoxide
    • nitric oxide
    • nitrogen dioxide
  70. CO₂ binds to what in lungs:
    Carbamate
  71. Opsonins plays a role in part with:
    Complex 3b
  72. Degradation of glutathione conjugate arises:
    mercapturic acid
  73. Which collagen type is synthesized by hypertrophic chondrocytes?
    Collagen type X - fibrillary mesh in hypertrophic chondrocytes
  74. Which collagen type does not belong to fibrillary collagens?
    collagen type IV - non-fibrillar, mesh/basal lamina
  75. What does not apply to CRP:
    acute conditions are reduced 
  76. Among atherogenic factors include:
    dyslipidemia
  77. Osteoporosis may cause:
    fractures
  78. AMPK:
    inhibits the anabolic and catabolic processes activated
  79. Markers for bone degradation/resorption:
    • Ca (urinary calcium)
    • hydroxyproline
    • pyridinoline and hydroxypyridonoline
  80. What is not a conjugate of xenobiotics:
    aristolochic acid
  81. Which of these elements do not form radicals:
    phosphorus
  82. What is the function of melanin?
    protection of keratinocyte nucleus from UV radiation
  83. Markers of liver damage:
    • alanine aminotransferase
    • aspartate aminotransferase
  84. The most common lipid surfactant:
    dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
  85. Troponin complex is used to:
    calcium binding mediates contraction
  86. What does not buffer blood:
    sulphate
  87. Why in atherosclerosis and inflammatory bb can LDL penetrate the endothelium?
    not repel them
  88. What is formed in the lungs:
    Angiotensin II
  89. Lactase dyhrdrogease:
    In the liver, D4 and D5
  90. The principle component of epidermal cells is:
    Keratin 
  91. What can manifest from osteoporosis:
    pain
  92. For PTH does not apply:
    hypocalcemia inhibits secretion
  93. Buffer that is physiologically effective:
    PKa=7.24
  94. What is a liver function:
    storage of TAG
  95. What is not true for skin:
    the emergence of an active form of vitamin D
  96. Risk factors for cardiac ischemia:
    dyslipidemia
  97. What does not stimulate the release of glucagon:
    high glucose concentration
  98. The most abundant protein in bone:
    collagen
  99. The main source for energy lungs:
    glucose
  100. What lyses fibrin:
    plasmin
  101. Signalling glucagon:
    protein kinase
  102. What prevents hypoglycemia:
    glycogen
  103. Renal excretion of what ensures stable internal environment:
    dihydrogen phosphates
  104. What is gamma-glutamyl a marker for:
    obstructive diseases of biliary tract
  105. What is not reflected in liver disorders:
    increased albumin
  106. Markers for myocardial necrosis:
    • myoglobin
    • creatinkinase + isoenzymes
    • troponin
    • LDH1
  107. What in the heart converts pyruvate to lactate?
    LDH
  108. The coagulation factor XIII(13) is a:
    transglutaminase - cross linking of fibrin soft->hard
  109. Conjugated bilirubin is what?
    bilirubin conjugated with glucuronic acid
  110. What mainly causes atherosclerosis?
    LDL
  111. Corticosterone:
    is a weak mineralcorticoid
  112. Monooxygenasesystem cytochrome P450
    • participates in conjugation of steroid hormones
    • is metabolic process located typically in the liver
  113. Which of the following belong to the positive acute phase reactants:
    C-reactive Protein(CRP, compliment component C3 and C4
  114. The placentallactogens = human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS)
    Affect the metabolism of fatty acids and glucose in mothers body - decrease maternal glucose utilization + increase lipolysis 
  115. Renin is:
    a protease cleaving angiotensin I from angiotensinogen
  116. The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue is not increased by:
    Insulin
  117. Ceruloplasmin carries:
    copper
  118. Select correct statement for pregnenolone:
    It is a precursor of minercorticoids
  119. Bisphenol A:
    • Is used for the production of PVC
    • Has estrogenic activity
  120. Decrease albumin concentrations can be caused by:
    • decrease synthesis in liver - cirrhosis/hepatitis
    • increase protein loss - through kidney
  121. Plasma cells are:
    terminal differentiation stage of B lymphocytes
  122. Activated macrophages are able to increase their ability to select and kill pathogens, but they are also very important in:
    starting cytotoxic T cell activation - binding of CD8 with an MHC type I molecule + antigen
  123. Which hormone does not belong to the peptide hormones?
    prostracyclin - prostragladin lipid molecule
  124. Antibody specifically binds to one or more very similar antigens by means of:
    Hypervariable regions of both heavy and light chains
  125. Which of the following amino acids is predominant in collagen?
    • Proline
    • Glycine - every 3rd AA
    • Lycine
  126. What is the energy source of skeletal muscle?
    Phosphocreatine -energy reservoir for ATP in muscle/neurons/spermatozoa
  127. The disaccharide repeating unit of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid consists of?
    Glucoronate and N-acetylglucosamine
  128. 25-OH D₃ is called:
    Calcidiol (=Calcifediol)
  129. Majority of coagulation factors are:
    Serine proteases
  130. What biochemical markers is most suitable for estimation of pro-inflammatory state related to the total body fat amount?
    Interleukin 6
  131. Which of the following compounds participates in short term central regulation of CVS:
    Atrial natriuretic peptide - vasodilator/decrease sodium reuptake in kidney->decrease BP
  132. De Ritis ratio:
    Is the AST/ALT ratio, value>1 suggest necrosis of hepatocytes
  133. Uncoupling proteins in brown fat mitochondria:
    Short-cicuit the proton gradient - allows energy to create heat
  134. Does the adipose tissue have its own endocrine function?
    Yes - inflammatory hormones can always be secreted
  135. Which statements regarding osteoclasts is not true:
    they are mononuclear cells - multinucleated
  136. Proteoglycans differ from glycoproteins in:
    Sugars modified by sulpho groups - keratin sulfate + chondroitin sulfate
  137. What causes the triglyceride accumulation in liver?
    Insulin resistance - causes hypertriglyceridemia
  138. Glutamine is mainly produced by the:
    skeletal muscle - from branched chained amino acids/lungs + brain use to remove
  139. Fatty acids:
    Are the major source for skeletal muscle
  140. Which of the following statements is correct regarding elastin:
    Its cross linkages are derived from side chain lysine residues – hydroxylysine(alysine)
  141. Recommended daily amount of calcium intake for male and premenopausal female is:
    800mg
  142. Which of the following molecules do not belong to the markers routinely used in myocardial infarction diagnosis:
    Myosin light chains
  143. Which of the following belong to the ketone bodies:
    Acetoacetate
  144. Which of the following does not belong to the products of proopiomelanocortin
    Melatonin– from tryptophan
  145. MHC complex class II is not found in
    Fibroblasts
  146. Endocrine disruptors are:
    Exogenous compounds that influence hormonal systems
  147. Albumin:
    Is the most abundant plasma protein
  148. The compliment cascade triggered by three different pathways joining at the key point of the complement system:
    Splitting C3 into C3a and C3b
  149. Plasma proteins:
    • Play an important role in transport of various substances - albumin etc.
    • Participate in defense organisms - immunoglobins
  150. The role of melanin:
    protection of nuclei of keratinocytes from UV-B
  151. Homovanillic acid is the degradation product of:
    dopamine
  152. Which of the following statements fits best the term innate immune response?
    its a rapid specific response
  153. Plasma cells are:
    terminal differentiation stage of B lymphocytes
  154. Thyeoglubulin is a:
    storage form of thyroxine
  155. The edema observed in patients with non-calorie protein malnutrition is caused by:
    reduced protein synthesis in the liver
  156. Vasopressin and oxytocin contain:
    9 amino acid residues
  157. An important step in the inactivation and excretion of all classes of steroid hormones (except vitamin D₃) is:
    reduction
  158. NADPH-oxidase of leukocytes produces:
    superoxide
  159. Which of the following amino acid side chain is involved in the formation of O-glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide chain and the protein?
    serine
  160. Bisphenol A:
    has estrogenic activity

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