Lecture 15: Microbial Genetics (Quiz 8)

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Lecture 15: Microbial Genetics (Quiz 8)
2015-05-30 22:07:11
The genetics of microorganisms.
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  1. Transcription
    • DNA is being turned into RNA
    • Helicase: Used to unwind the DNA
  2. RNA Polymerase
    • Part of Transcription
    • Binds to DNA and creates the RNA
    • Works in a 5' to 3' sequence, but still binds to 3' end and makes new 5'
    • Termination Sequence: Where RNA Polymerase is kicked off and only one strand is left
    • U instead of T is used
  3. Sense Strand
    • One of the strands that make up DNA
    • Gene of interest
  4. Anti-Sense Strand
    • The second strand of the double stranded DNA
    • Contains the compliment DNA of Sense Strand
    • This is the one that RNA Polymerase makes a copy of.
  5. rRNA
    • Ribosomal RNA
    • Binds with proteins to form 2 ribosome subunits
    • 2 subunits combine to form Ribosome (Translation/Protein Creation)
    • Acts as binding sites for tRNA
    • Prokaryotes: 30S and 50S = 70S
    • Eukaryotes: 40S and 60S = 80S
  6. mRNA
    • Messenger RNA
    • Makes up the bulk of most RNA
    • Codes for the gene of interest
    • Direct Protein Synthesis
    • Codons: Triplets (3 base pairs) of genes.
    • Ribosomes read these codons then must use the genetic code table to Translate RNA
    • Every proton will start with Methionine and end with a Stop Codon
  7. Exons and Introns
    • Only in Eukaryotic Cells
    • Part of mRNA
    • Exons: Coding regions
    • Introns: Non-coding regions
    • The Introns are removed and the Extrons are spliced together.
  8. tRNA
    • Transfer RNA
    • Trasnfers amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes to create amino acid chains (peptides) which will become proteins
    • They are the link between codons (mRNA) and the corresponding amino acids
    • Aligns the amino acid up for incorporation into the growing peptide chain
    • Link between codons
  9. Translation
    • This is the act of protein synthesis
    • Starts with RNA and ends with Proteins
    • Bulk of the energy is used
    • Peptide Bonds are formed between amino acids
    • Ribosomes do translation, reading mRNA
  10. Three Important Ribosomal Sites
    • E Site: This is the last site, where the ribosomes move along after the P and A sites and where they are now broken off.
    • P Site: This is where the first tRNA binds with the amino acid attached to it (finds the matching mRNA codon)
    • A Site: 2nd tRNA attaches to this site to its matching codon. A peptide bond is formed between the two.
  11. Transcription/Translation, where is takes place?
    • Prokaryotes: Cytoplasm
    • Eukaryotes: Replication and Transcription take place in the nucleus, then mRNA leaves and goes to the endoplasmic reticulum where the Ribsomomes are
  12. 3 Main Ways for Controlling Metabolism
    • Feedback Inhibition: End product inhibition, product turns off enzyme that made it, enzyme regulation is done directly
    • Enzyme Induction: The synthesis of an enzyme in response to a substrate
    • Enzyme Repression: Both are regulated indirectly, the enzyme itself is made or not made
  13. Feedback Inhibition
    • This is one of the 3 ways of controlling metabolism
    • Regulates how much protein is being created
    • The allosteric site is bound
    • After bound to the allosteric site, no more enzymes are produced