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- DNA is being turned into RNA
- Helicase: Used to unwind the DNA
- Part of Transcription
- Binds to DNA and creates the RNA
- Works in a 5' to 3' sequence, but still binds to 3' end and makes new 5'
- Termination Sequence: Where RNA Polymerase is kicked off and only one strand is left
- U instead of T is used
- One of the strands that make up DNA
- Gene of interest
- The second strand of the double stranded DNA
- Contains the compliment DNA of Sense Strand
- This is the one that RNA Polymerase makes a copy of.
- Ribosomal RNA
- Binds with proteins to form 2 ribosome subunits
- 2 subunits combine to form Ribosome (Translation/Protein Creation)
- Acts as binding sites for tRNA
- Prokaryotes: 30S and 50S = 70S
- Eukaryotes: 40S and 60S = 80S
- Messenger RNA
- Makes up the bulk of most RNA
- Codes for the gene of interest
- Direct Protein Synthesis
- Codons: Triplets (3 base pairs) of genes.
- Ribosomes read these codons then must use the genetic code table to Translate RNA
- Every proton will start with Methionine and end with a Stop Codon
Exons and Introns
- Only in Eukaryotic Cells
- Part of mRNA
- Exons: Coding regions
- Introns: Non-coding regions
- The Introns are removed and the Extrons are spliced together.
- Transfer RNA
- Trasnfers amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes to create amino acid chains (peptides) which will become proteins
- They are the link between codons (mRNA) and the corresponding amino acids
- Aligns the amino acid up for incorporation into the growing peptide chain
- Link between codons
- This is the act of protein synthesis
- Starts with RNA and ends with Proteins
- Bulk of the energy is used
- Peptide Bonds are formed between amino acids
- Ribosomes do translation, reading mRNA
Three Important Ribosomal Sites
- E Site: This is the last site, where the ribosomes move along after the P and A sites and where they are now broken off.
- P Site: This is where the first tRNA binds with the amino acid attached to it (finds the matching mRNA codon)
- A Site: 2nd tRNA attaches to this site to its matching codon. A peptide bond is formed between the two.
Transcription/Translation, where is takes place?
- Prokaryotes: Cytoplasm
- Eukaryotes: Replication and Transcription take place in the nucleus, then mRNA leaves and goes to the endoplasmic reticulum where the Ribsomomes are
3 Main Ways for Controlling Metabolism
- Feedback Inhibition: End product inhibition, product turns off enzyme that made it, enzyme regulation is done directly
- Enzyme Induction: The synthesis of an enzyme in response to a substrate
- Enzyme Repression: Both are regulated indirectly, the enzyme itself is made or not made
- This is one of the 3 ways of controlling metabolism
- Regulates how much protein is being created
- The allosteric site is bound
- After bound to the allosteric site, no more enzymes are produced