Fluid 2

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Author:
jld15
ID:
303485
Filename:
Fluid 2
Updated:
2015-05-31 21:14:24
Tags:
Fluid
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Fluid 2
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  1. Dehydration Clinical signs and symptoms
    • Confusion
    • ----Neuron most susceptible to fluid changes
    • Dry mucous membranes
    • Irritability
    • Incoordination
    • Postural hypotension
    • ----Can cause someone to pass out
    • Rapid HR
    • Rapid respirations
    • Skin changes
    • ----Dry skin
  2. S/S Fluid volume deficit (FVD)
    • Decrease in cardiac output = SV * HR
    • Decreased BP
    • ----Blood vessels open up to make it easier for fluid to move up
    • Increased HR
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Dehydration
  3. S/S Fluid volume excess: heart failure:
    • Weight gain
    • ----Change in 3-5lb over a few days
    • Edema
    • Dyspnea
    • Bounding pulse
    • ----Fast and hard
    • ----Jugular vein distension: can see it throbbing
  4. Therapists Considerations dehydration
    • Decreased endurance
    • Potential hypovolemic shock
    • Ostomies
    • ----Bag for bowel
  5. Therapist considerations Skin care
    • Edema
    • ----Skin gets stretched and less blood supply gets there and can tear and difficult to repair
    • Friction
    • Shear
    • ----Body stays skin moves
    • --------Ex: moving head of bed up skin stay but body slide down
    • Positioning
    • ----Move position, L/R
  6. Electrolyte Imbalances
    • Sodium (Na+)
    • Potassium (K+)
    • Calcium (Ca++)
    • Magnesium (Mg++)
    • Chloride (Cl-)
    • Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
    • Phosphate (PO43-)
    • Sodium-potassium pump
  7. Hypokalemia
    • Arrhythmias
    • Anorexia, nausea
    • Constipation
    • Fatigue
    • Weakness, cramps
    • Shallow respirations
    • Parenthesis
    • Postural hypotension
  8. Hyperkalemia
    • Arrhythmias
    • Diarrhea
    • Weakness
    • Parenthesis
  9. Hyperkalemia info
    • Causes: renal failure (people with renal failure can tolerate high levels of potassium), extensive muscle damage, acidosis, excessive K+ intake
    • Clinically: muscle weakness/cramping, parenthesis, EKG changes
    • Treat: Sodium polystyrene, calcium chloride : promote diarrhea to promote K loss
  10. Hypokalemia info
    • Causes: loop diuretics, endocrine d/o, malnutrition, alkalosis
    • Clinically: weakness, tachycardia, n/v, lethargy, muscle cramping, EKG changes
    • Treat: Slow IV K+ admin or oral replacement
  11. Hyponatremia (most common)
    • Anorexia, nausea
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle weakness
    • Headache, confusion
    • Decreased BP
    • Cold, clammy skin
  12. Hypernatremia
    • Thirst
    • Lethargy
    • Weakness
    • Edema
    • Increased BP
    • Flushed skin
  13. Hypernatremia info
    • Causes: water losses, excessive sodium intake
    • Clinically: altered mentation (neurons altered by sodium), lethargy, seizures, muscle weakness
    • Treat: controlled water replacement
  14. Hyponatremia info
    • Causes: excess secretion of ADH, hypervolemic conditions (large amounts of fluid)
    • Clinically: disorientation, seizures, lethargy, n/v, respiratory arrest
    • Treat: careful replacement of sodium depending on cause

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