DSCI 422 Test 3

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kderaad
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303519
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DSCI 422 Test 3
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2015-06-02 23:45:05
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DSCI 422
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Dairy Science 422 Test 3
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  1. PTA'S
    • Predicted Transmitting Ability
    • To compare an animal's offspring to herd mates
    • An estimate of how progeny will perform compared to herd mates in a breed average her and STA's for linear type
  2. STA'S
    RUH, FU, RA
    • PTA expressed on a standardized scale
    • comparable to standard deviations
    • Rear Udder Height
    • Fore Udder
    • Rump Angle
  3. Heritability and how it relates to PTAs and STAs
  4. Evaluations for Production, Type, health traits
    • Production: Milk yield, butterfat, and protein (USDA)
    • Type: Overall and linear (Breed Association)
    • Health Traits: SCC, DPR, PL, CE, DSB
  5. Genetic Basis of a progeny test
    • To compare an animal's (usually a male) offspring to herd mates (contemporaries)
    • The herd mate being an animal about he same age and management group, with known genetics
    • The herd mate comparison is adjusted to breed average
  6. NAAB Numbers
    • Four numbers after breed
    • 29HO2328
    • Certify Semen
    • DBH-% difficult births in heifers
  7. History of Dairy Genetics
    • Linebreeding (no evaluations)-early 1900s
    • Progeny/Parent Comparisons - 1930s
    • Hermate Comparisons - 1962
    • Modified Contemporary Comparisons - 1974
    • Animal Model - 1989
    • Genomic Evaluations - 2009
  8. Progeny Test program: 50 daughters, 50 herds, 5 areas, other countries, contemporaries
    • 300 bulls/year
    • -1200 units/bull
    • -200 herds
    • 70-80 daughters in 50 herds
    • -participants get
    • --$5-10 per calf
    • --$40 per daughter on a bull proof
  9. Young Sire program example
    • 1. $3/unit $5/heifer $40-50/milking day
    • 2. $3       $8/head  $55
    • 3. $3       $5/head  $52
    • 4. $3       $5/head  $50
    • 5. $3       $5/head  $42-45
    •               $5 of CE
  10. Estimated Breeding Value
    • Sire PTA+Dam PTA = EBV (dairy)
    • 1/2 EBV=PTA
  11. Reliability
    • Measures the amount of information in the evaluation
    • Information from the animal, parents and progeny are considered
    • 99%=Highest
    • 80-85%= Highly reliable
    • 75%+=Relialble (top 100 genomic bulls 71-73%R)
  12. For the most Accuracy (Reliability)
    • Offspring numbers
    • Herdmate numbers
    • Herds in different areas (now in different countries)
    • Genetic information for parents, herd mates, pedigrees.
    • Genomic evaluation
  13. The Animal model
    • A computer program, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP), is used to predict genetic merit
    • Compares genetic merit to a base of 0 for animals born in 2005
    • The average PTA of animals born in 2005 is 0
    • Base date now 2010
  14. The Animal Model
    Interbull and MACE
    For Dairy cattle, the inter bull computer program converts information from other countries.
  15. SCS vs SCC
    • SCS: is a score 1-5  avg. is 3 the lower the better
    • SCC: is the number 5=400,000 4=200,000
  16. Productive Life
    • Measured as total months-in-milk by seven years of age with a 10 month maximum lactation
    • Also includes correlated linear traits. Udder depth has the highest correlation.
    • 7 years, 10 months lactation, in months
  17. NM$
    • Net Merit Dollars
    • Measures the additional expected lifetime profit
    • Based on production, udder health, longevity, and body size
    • Also CM$
  18. Linear Type Traits
    • a score of 1 to 50 for 18 different traits, evaluated by Breed Association Classifiers.
    • Standard Transmitting Ability (STA) is then calculated
    • STAs 1-50 and measures in inches vs. -4 to +4
  19. Linear Composite Indexes
    • Combine linear traits into a single index
    • Composite indexes are calculated for:
    • -udder (jersey calculates JUI)
    • -Feet and legs
    • -Body size
    • -Dairy Capacity
  20. Calving Ease
    • Measures of Calving Ease
    • -1 No Problem (or unobserved)
    • -2 Slight Problem
    • -3 Needed assistance
    • -4 Considerable force
    • -5 Extreme difficulty
    • %DBH, REL, OBS, SCE, DCE
  21. Sire Names, ET, TV, CV, RC
    • ET: embryo transfer
    • TV: tested free of cvm
    • CV: Complex Vertebral Malformation
    • RC: red hair color
  22. FLC, DPR, FI, DSB
    • FLC: Feet and Legs Composite
    • DPR: Daughter Pregnancy rates
    • FI: Fertility Index
    • DSB: Daughter Stillbirth
  23. TPI (Total Performance Index)
    • Gold standard in ranking world-wide holstein genetics, serving as a rudder for the genetic direction of the breed.
    • Not necessarily aimed at breeding individual cows, but rather to advance the entire genetic pool.
  24. 305 Day, 2X, ME, 40 days in milk
    Actual production record x length of lactations in days factor x age & month at calving factor x Days milk 3x daily
  25. 2 methods of mating programs
    aAa or DMS
  26. aAa
    • Dairy                      Strong
    • 1. Dairy                  4. Strong
    • 2. Tall                    5. Smooth
    • 3. Open                  6. Style
  27. Breeding Goals
    • Pastures
    • Confinement
    • Feeding Systems
  28. 2 ways to consider inbreeding
    • 1. consider by mating
    • 2. pick bulls w/low expected future inbreeding

    About 1/2 matings made never get mated, matings don't always work
  29. TPI vs JPI
    • TPI:
    • -46% Production
    • -28% Health & Fertility
    • -26% Conformation
    • JPI:
    • -57% Production
    • -28% Health & Fertility
    • -15% Functional Type
  30. Net Merit, Cheese Merit, Fluid Merit
    • Net Merit: best if selling milk to a fluid market, based on national average milk prices
    • Cheese Merit: if selling to a cheese plant
    • Fluid Merit: if selling on a volume basis only
  31. Overall herd needs- considerations for plan
    • Longevity
    • Feet and Legs
    • Milk/Cheese
  32. "S" and "O" codes
    • S means standard 40+ herds
    • O less than 40 herds or not reported to NAAB by 3 years of age
  33. Types of Proofs
    • Three Sources:
    • Genomic
    • Domestic US
    • (MACE) Multi-Trait Across Country Evaluations 

    India has the most cows
  34. Linear Composite Indexes
    • Composite Indexes are calculated for:
    • -Udder
    • -Body Size
    • -Feet and Legs
    • -Dairy Capacity
  35. Heritability of Linear Traits
    • Stature: .42
    • Body Depth: .37
    • Foot Angle: .15
    • Rear Legs Rear View: .11
  36. Calving Ease Average
    Average 7.9, down from 8.3. Selecting a bull less than 6% DBH for heifers may be unrealistic
  37. Good PTA bull numbers (top 5%) roughly-Protein, Fat, Milk, Type, TPI, NM$
    • PTAP - 50
    • PTAF- 69
    • PTAM - 1761
    • PTAT - 2.54
    • TPI - 2316
    • NM$ - 568
  38. STA's
    • STAs rank an animal based on its genetic merit relative to the average cow born in 2010, in standard units.
    • Examples averages
    • -Stature: 0.94 tall
    • -Strength: 0.59 strong
    • -Rump Angle: 0.13 sloped 
    • -Foot Angle: 0.98 steep
    • -Rear Udder Height: 1.86 High

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