Strawberry

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Strawberrylotus
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303592
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Strawberry
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2015-06-02 23:35:03
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  1. Systemic
    1.fungul infection deep within body

    • •Ex. histoplasmosis
    • & coccidioidomycosis
  2. Subcutaneous
    1.fungal infection beneath skin

    •Ex. sporotrichosis
  3. Cutaneous
    1.infects epidermis, hair and nails

    • •Caused
    • by dermatophytes,
    • make keratinase. Can
    • be passed from person to person
  4. 1.Superficial
    • •Fungi
    • grow along hair shafts and surface epidermal cells, common in tropical climates
  5. 1.Opportunistic
    • •Ex.
    • Pneumocystis in AIDS patients
  6. Algae
    • •Mostly aquatic, living in the top few
    • meters of water

    •Simple eukaryotic photoautotrophs

    • •Fix CO2
    • into organic carbon, and release O2
  7. Algae 2
    •Reproduce sexually & asexually

    • •Classified by rRNA,
    • pigments, & structures

    •A few cause disease via toxins made by the algae
  8. Diatoms
    • •Made
    • of a pectin & silica layer

    • •Store
    • energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of oil

    • •Petroleum
    • & natural gas come from diatoms that lived millions of years ago that were
    • buried by sediment & compressed by heat and pressure
  9. Algal
    Toxins

    •Dinoflagellates / plankton
    • –Ex. Alexandrium,
    • large numbers of these algae cause the ocean to be deep red in color (red tide)

    • –Can
    • cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
  10. AlgalToxins 

    •Domic
    acid intoxication
    • –When
    • contaminated mussels are consumed causes neurological disease in people

    • –Responsible
    • for killing hundreds of marine birds & sea lions in CA
  11. Protozoa
    • •20,000 different species but only a few
    • cause disease
  12. Protozoa Reproduction
    • –Asexually:
    • binary fission, budding, schizogony

    • –Sexually:
    • conjugation, ex. by Paramecium
  13. Plasmodium malaria life cycle
    • 1. infected mosquito bites human
    • sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to live in human
    • 2. sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell, merozoites are produced
    • 3. merozoites released into bloodstream from liver may infect new red blood cells
    • 4. merozoite develops into ring stage in red blood cell
    • 5. ring stage grows and divides producing merozoites
    • 6. merozoites are released when red blood cell ruptures. some infect blood cells some develop into male and female gametocytes
    • 7. another mosquito bites infected human and ingests gametocytes
    • 8. in mosquitos digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote
    • resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito
  14. Plasmodium malaria
    Human = intermediate host, asexual reproduction

    Mosquito = definitive host, sexual reproduction
  15. Definitive
    host
    • •host where the organism undergoes sexual
    • reproduction

    • –Ex.
    • The Anopheles
    • mosquito for Plasmodium
    • (causes
    • malaria)
  16. Intermediate
    host
    • •host where the organism only reproduces
    • asexually

    • –Ex.
    • Humans for Plasmodium
  17. Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle
    • 1. Infected kissing bug bites and defecates, trypomastigotes (parasite) are in bug feces
    • 2. trypomastigotes enter bite wound and/or mucous membranes
    • 3. a chagoma occurs at the site of bite
    • 4. trypomastigotes live in blood, turn into amastigotes live in tissues and heart
    • 5. kissing bug acquired infection by biting infected human
  18. Trypanosoma cruzi
    kissing bug = intermediate

    human = definitive
  19. Helminths
    • –Dioecious:
    • male and female in separate organisms

    • –Monoecious:
    • (hermaphroditic) male & female in 1 organism
  20. Worm Infections
    Ascaris roundworm 30% highest
  21. Schistosoma life cycle
    • 1. Person is infected with parasite lays eggs
    • 2. Eggs reach body of water after being excreted in feces or urine
    • 3. eggs hatch into free swimming larvae (miracidia)
    • 4. miracidium penetrates snail, reproduces in snail forming several cercariae
    • 5. cercariae are released from snail, penetrates human losing tail
    • 6. cercariae travel through circulatory system to intestinal blood vessels, where they mature
  22. nemotode - roundworms
    •Most are dioecious

    • –Males
    • are usually smaller than females
  23. Nematode
    - Trichinellaspiralis
  24. Coccidiodes
    immitis
    • a
    • dimorphic fungi
  25. Lichen
    • •Algae + fungi
    • living in a mutualistic relationship

    • •Algae
    • – performs photosynthesis and produces
    • carbohydrates which it shares with the fungi
  26. Lichen 2
    • •Fungi – attaches both organisms to a rock,
    • tree, etc. and provides protection from desiccation

    •Slow growing

    • •Produce organic acids to leech nutrients
    • needed for growth from rocks
  27. Fungi
    –Metabolize complex carbohydrates

    –Prefer slightly acidic conditions

    • –More resistant to osmotic pressure than
    • bacteria

    –Yeast – mostly facultative anaerobes

    –Molds – mostly aerobes

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