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why is endotoxin not a problem at the onset of gram- infections?
hidden in the membrane while the bacteria is alive
what are two reasons the crystal violent stain does not stain gram- bacteria?
- thin peptiodglycan won't hold it in the cell
- alcohol dissovles outer membrane allowing it to escape
the cell membrane is composed of a bilayer of _______.
this arrangement (bilayer of phospholipids) causes the middle of the membrane to be ________.
this property of the membrane (hydrophobic) causes it to be ______.
proteins in the cell membrane can serve as _____, _____, _____, _____, and ______ messengers
- recognition signals
prokaryotic cell membranes become stiff and inflexible at colder temperature. what keeps eukaryotic cell membranes from doing the same?
the difference between an area of high concentration and an area of low concentration is called a ______.
the desire of all concentration differences to _____ their concentrations.
processes that increase concentration gradients increase ______ energy to ______ energy.
- potential to kinetic
the movement of a solute down its concentration gradient is called _____.
why does this (diffusion) not require the cell to use energy?
the potential energy in the concentration gradient is used instead
what would require the cell to use energy in the movement of solutes?
movement that increases a concentration gradient
solute concentration gradients spearated by a membrane that is impermeable to the solute create _______.
the movement of water in response to this is called _____.