Covering up a weakness by emphasizing a desirable trait."a physically handicapped boy is unable to participate in football, so he compensate by becoming a great scholar"
Refusing to acknowledge the existence of a real situation or the feelings associated with it. "a women drinks alcohol every day and cannot stop, failing to acknowledge that she has a problem"
The transfer of feelings from one target to another that is considered less threatening or neutral. "a client is angry at his doctor, does not express it, but becomes verbally abusive with the nurse"
Attempting to make excuses or formulate logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors. "John tells the rehab nurse, "I drink because it's the only way I can deal with my bad marriage and my worse job."
Preventing unacceptable thoughts or behavior from being expressed by exaggerating opposite behaviors or thoughts. "Jane hates nursing school, yet she speaks to prospective students about the excellence of a nursing career."
Responding to stress by retreating to an earlier level of development and its comfort measures. "When a 2-year-old is hospitalized, he will only drink from a bottle, although mother states he has been drinking from a cup for 6 months."
An attempt to increase self worth by acquiring certain attributes of a person one admires. "An injured client decides to become a Physical therapist as a result of his rehab experience
An attempt to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with a stressful situation by using logic and reasoning. "Hiding anxiety by talking about the advantages of a situation."
Integrating the beliefs and values of another individual into one's own ego structure. "Children use their parent's value system to develop a conscience." "Don't cheat. it's wrong"
Separating a thought or memory from the feeling tone or emotion associated with it. "Without showing emotion, a young woman describes being attacked"
Attributing feelings or impulses unacceptable to one's self to another person. "Sue feels a strong attraction to her coach, and tells a friend that he is coming "on" to her."
Involuntary blocking unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's awareness. "An accident victim can remember nothing about the accident"
The voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's awareness. "Scarlett O'Hara says, "I will think about that tomorrow"
Symbolically negating or canceling out an experience that one finds intolerable."Joe is nervous about his job and yells at his wife. Later, he buys her flowers."
Rechanneling of unacceptable drives or impulses into constructive activities. "A mother who lost her son to drunk driver channels her anger and energy into being the president of the local chapter of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers"