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What does Negeolism mean?
- A completely new word.
- Not derived from anywhere else.
What is the least common way of creating new words?
Negeolisms / Coinage
What is a Loan word?
A word borrowed from another language.
What is adopting a word from another language, such as Vodka from Russia, know as?
Loan words/ Borrowing
What are the main countries English has brewed words from ?
What happens when a word becomes Angelsised?
- A foreign word is adapted to English
- eg. Chocolate from the French Chocolat
What do borrowed words reflect?
- The power and prestige of the language they have come from at a particular time.
- e.g Americanisms because they have big political and economic power.
Why are we seeing a lot of Americanisms in the English Language?
Because America has big political and economic power.
What is AFFIXING?
- Adding prefixes or suffixes to existing words to change there meaning and create new words.
- eg. sexism
What is the most common formation of new words?
What are Prefixes used for?
Affixing. They are added to the start of a word to change its meaning.
What are suffixes used for?
Affixing. They are added onto the end of words to change the meaning and create new words.
What is the suffix -ism commonly used for?
- to show prejudice
- eg. Sexismeg. ageism
- eg. raceism
What other thing can the suffix -ism be used to show?
- Belief systems or philosophies
- eg. Buddismeg. Socialism
What can the suffix -gate be used to show?
- A negative scandal often relating to politics.
- eg. Irangate
- eg. plebgate
Where did the use of the suffix -gate come from ?
The 1970 'Watergate Scandal' in American Politics.
What is compounding?
- New words begin created by combing old ones. eg. blackbird
- eg. Laptop
What can sometimes be decided by a hyphen (-) ?
- A compound word.
- eg. blue-eyed
What is conversion ?
- Where the word class of an existing word changes to create a new use for it.
- eg. texting
What are blend words?
- Parts of two words joined together to make one new word.
- eg. Smog
what is abbreviating?
- Forming a new word by shortening an existing word in someway.
- eg. 'Advertisement' 'Advert' 'Ad'
What is backformation ?
- Shortening a word of one type of word so it becomes another.
- eg. Edit (noun) from Editor (Verb)
- Making a new word from the initial letters of a phrase
- eg. WAG
Why are the original phrases made into acronyms long and complex?
Because there writers want to seem intelligent, sophisticated and have power and prestige.
"Acronyms/Clipping is popular because we have a liking for 'linguistic economy'." Who said this?
What is initialism?
- Making a new word by pronouncing the first letter of a phrase
- eg. DVD CD
What is an Eponym ?
- The name of a person after whome something is named.
- eg. sandwich after Lord Sandwich
What is a proprietary name?
- The name of a product given by a company that then becomes the widely known name of all version of the product.
- eg. Tampax
- eg. Hoover
- eg. Calpoll
What are Archaic words?
Words not commonly used in modern texts.
What are obsolete words?
Words never used in modern texts.
What is making new words from existing ones known as?
What is Morphological Change?
Making new words form old ones.
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