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What is the primary function of the nervous system?
Controls and coordinates functions of other systems of the body to work in harmony and efficiency. Collects sensory info, process, interpret and integrate the info to initiate proper body response.
Name the parts of the nervous system.
Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Name and describe the general function of a nerve cell.
- Nerve cell is called a neuron.
- Cell body, single axon and numerous dendrites.
Which abilities do neurons have that enable them to transmit nerve impulses?
to react to certain stimuli and transfer an impulse over a distance or to another neuron.
What is a synapse?
Junction between 2 nerve cells where nerve impulses are transmitted from one another.
Describe 3 types of neurons.
- Sensory/Afferent- carry impulses from sense organs to CNS
- Motor/Efferent- carry impulses from CNS to muscles or glands
Describe the structure of a nerve.
Bundle of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue that extends from the CNS to the tissues the neurons innervate
What is an efferent nerve?
Motor nerve that is composed of neurons that carry impulses from the CNS to the muscles and glands
What is an afferent nerve?
A sensory nerve composed of sensory neurons that carry impulses from the body to the CNS.
What is a mixed nerve?
Composed of both sensory and motor nerves. Most nerves in the body are mixed.
What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
CNS and peripheral
What is the CNS and where is it located?
- Central nervous system consists of
- Brain- cranium
- Spinal cord- vertebral column
Define meninges and name its layers.
- Fibrous connective tissue covering the CNS. Layers are
- Dura mater
- arachnoid mater
- Pia mater
What is cerebrospinal fluid and what is its function?
Clear fluid derived from blood, secreted into the inner cavities of the brain. The main function is to protect the CNS by acting as a shock absorber for delicate tissue.
What are the main parts of the brain.
Cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.
Where is the perepheral system located?
Located throughout all innervated tissues of the body. All the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
- Somatic nervous system
- Autonomic nervous system
How many pairs of cranial nerves branch out from the brain?
Identify the cranial nerves by name and number.
- 1. Olfactory
- 2. Optic
- 3. oculomotor
- 4. trochlear
- 5. trigeminal
- 6/ abducent
- 7. facial
- 8. acoustic
- 9. flossopharyngeal
- 10. vagus
- 11. spinal accessory
- 12. hypoglossal
How many pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord?
Describe how the spinal nerves are numbered.
- C 1-8
- T 1-12
- L 1-5
- S 1-5
- 1 coccygeal
What is a nerve plexus?
Network of nerves located outside the CNS.
What is the function of the automonic nervous system?
Regulates actions of glands, smooth muscles and the heart.
Name and contrast the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
Parasympathetic- balances the actions of the sympathetic system to conserve energy.
Sympathetic- prepares organism for energy expending, emergency or stressful situations. Can bring increased respiration, pupil dilation, heart rate increase etc.
Which organs are supplied by the sympathetic nervous system?
Involuntary muscles, heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, adrenal and salivary glands, bladder and reproductive organs.
What is a reflex action?
Involuntary response of a muscle to stimulus.
What is a proprioception?
system of sensory and motor nerve activity that provides info to the CNS as to contraction and position of muscles.
Name the two categories of proprioceptors
Spindle cells and golgi tendons.