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Plato's Theory of ART
- Determined by the theory of Forms.
- Order has positive aesthetic value: mathematical forms, natural objects, pirctures.
- Greater reality means greater affinity
The Form of Beauty is imperfectly limited nature and in art. Plato
- The artist's cognitive intent (to deliver knownledge) fails.
- Emotionally the artists magic is dangerously powerful and affects behavior so art must be carefully and strictly censored
Art is between two types of knowledge. Plato
- Experiential knowledge - it is vivid, immediate, concrete.
- Conceptual knowledge - it has perspective, objectivity, generality
Platos best form of government
Autocracy. The philosopher kings return to the cave. The rational class imposes temperance on the producers for their own good.
Art of Ruling Concerns. Plato
- Selecting and nurturing the potential rulers
- Controlling the producers via propaganda nd censorship.
- Reason is because each person will find happiness playing the part in the state that their nature suits them for
Action of Rulers. Plato
- The rulers will act as rationally as they think because knowledge is virtue for them.
- If we really know what is right/good we will go for it. When we don't know it is because we are overcome by pain/pleasure/emotion
Why Plato doesn't like democracy
- The leaders are chosen on irrelevant grounds.
- Ruling is a must be the art of flattery and appealing to people's passions.
- Rhetoric works are the level of opinion/belief, not knowledge
Plato's theory of knowledge
Was developed to answer the sophists' skepticism about reason and morality.
Problems to overcome for Plato
- 1. How can what is one also be many? Isn't that a contradiction?
- 2. If the many are really one thing then how things appear is not reality.
- 3. If the one changes into the many then how can something change/be different and YET remain the same?
Plato's relations with other philosophers.
Heraclitus, Parmenides, and Socrates
How Plato's theory of the Forms got formed
- He took what heraclitus said about the sensible realm that everything is changing.
- He took what Parmenides said about the intelligible realm that nothing ever changes
Plato's The Forms
- Forms are known in thought.
- Geometrician contemplates triangle not just this triangle.
- A form is a set of universal properties
Science of First Principles. Plato
- Reveals the Form of the GOOD.
- Like the sun illumines visible things the good illumines the various truths.
How to ascend from the lower to the higher forms. Plato
Separates the higher form vs the lower form
4 levels of the Forms by perception
- Starting from bottom:
- Level 1 = Images
- Level 2 = Physical Objects
- Levels 1 and 2 are in lower forms
- Level 3 = Forms of geometry, mathematics, and physical objects
- Level 4 = Forms of Wisdom, Courage, Moderation, Justice
4 levels of the Forms by thinking
- Starting from the bottom:
- Level 1 = Conjecture - shadows on wall
- Level 2 = Belief - seeing what makes the shadow
- Level 3 = Understanding
- Level 4 = Dialectic
A sophisticated process of question and answer like offering a hypotheses, considering criticisms, and revising to move nearer to the Truth - unconditioned knowledge
How do we know about the Forms?
Must have been acquired before birth because we know that they exist without anyone tell us.
- The soul must be immortal and reborn in cycles.
- So recollection is learning which is recovering knowledge that was forgotten