Sports Medicine Boards 2015

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Author:
rsloan
ID:
303762
Filename:
Sports Medicine Boards 2015
Updated:
2015-07-10 16:32:31
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Sports Medicine Exercise Nutrition
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Description:
Exercise Physiology and Nutrition
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  1. What is periodization training?
    • Technique that helps athletes implement structural variations (at least 1 program variable is altered)
    • e.g. micro-, meso-, and macrocycle training principles
  2. Why is intense exercise (>75% max O2 consumption) not recommended in patients with HIV?
    Impaired ability to mobilize natural killer cells and neutrophils after 1 hour of exercise at 75% maximal oxygen consumption.
  3. What two things define exertional heat stroke?
    • Signs or symptoms of organ system failure (commonly, dysfunction of the central nervous system)
    • Rectal temperature higher than 104°F (40°C)
  4. Exertional heat stroke:  Risk factors (5)
    • Underlying illness
    • Training during the hottest hours of the day
    • Sleep deprivation
    • Low physical fitness (physical effort unmatched to physical activity)
    • Dehydration
    • Improper acclimatization
  5. Exertional heat exhaustion vs. Exertional heat stroke
    • Exhaustion:  
    • Either water or sodium depletion
    • Stroke: 
    • Organ system failure (commonly, dysfunction of the central nervous system) &
    • Rectal temperature higher than 104°F (40°C)
  6. What is Exercise-associated collapse? When does it occur?
    • Occurs toward the end of an athletic event (ie, when the athlete stops)
    • Muscles are no longer pumping blood to the heart --> transient hypotension --> athlete's collapse
  7. Effects of Creatine on performance?
    • Increase the intramuscular concentration of phosphocreatine --> increased lean body mass, enhanced muscular strength and anaerobic power
    • Speedier recovery from high-intensity exercise
  8. Effects of Caffeine on performance?
    • Increases free fatty-acid mobility
    • Spares glycogen
    • Prolongs endurance
    • Can increase/improve work and power
    • Muscle contraction and calcium release from the muscle are both directly affected
  9. Most common cause of syncope following exertion?
    Neurocardiogenic syncope related to postural hypotension
  10. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE): Signs & Symptoms
    • HA
    • Tachypnea
    • Decrease exercise performance
    • Dry cough
    • Decrease Exercise Performance Dizziness
    • Fatigue
    • Peripheral & Central Cyanosis
    • Insomnia
    • GI disturbance
    • Late Signs: Bloody/pink sputum & Resp Distress
  11. Definition of Hyperthermia?
    Body temperature > 103°F [39.5°C]
  12. Definition of Hypothermia?
    Body temperature < 97°F [36.1°C]
  13. Definition of Normothermic?
    • Body temperature between 97°F [36.1°C] and 103°F [39.5°C]
    • Athletes within this range DO NOT require cooling or heating
  14. Altitude Training:  Optimal elevation and parameters
    • Optimal training level is 6990-8200 ft (2100-2500 m)
    • Athletes who train at low elevations but live at high elevations have greater response than their counterparts
    • "Live high; Train Low"
  15. Force-producing capabilities of muscle may be compromised by stretching before exercise; therefore, stretching should be avoided before strength training.  True or False?
    True
  16. 3 mechanisms of action for anabolic steroids
    • Anticatabolic effects help metabolize ingested proteins and
    • Reverse glucocorticoid action; thus,
    • Convert negative nitrogen balance into positive
  17. Adverse effects of steroid use may include the following:
    • Euphoria
    • Decreased or increased libido
    • Aggression
    • Personality disorders
    • Decreased sperm production
    • Gynecomastia
    • Hirsutism
  18. Serious and irreversible adverse events of steroid use may include:
    • Liver tumors
    • Severe tendon ruptures
    • Psychosis
    • Premature closure of growth plates
    • Hypertension
  19. What would be a physiologic change in an athlete after acclimating to the heat and then exercising in that same environment?
    A) Increase in plasma aldosterone
    B) Right shift of the sweat osmolality
    C) Significantly higher plasma lactate concentration
    D) Significant decrease in the percent dehydration during exercise
    B) Right shift of the sweat osmolality

    Plasma aldosterone and the total content and concentration of sodium in a person's sweat are significantly decreased when exercising.
    In addition, the amount of dehydration during exercise is significantly increased due to the body's increase in free water loss.
    Significantly lower concentration of plasma lactate can be seen in postexercise tests
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. A 24-year-old woman presents to you. She is a triathlete and wants your advice on her nutritional status and how to complement her current training regimen. What should you recommend to her for optimal postexercise recovery?
    a) 3:1 ratio of low glycemic index carbohydrates and protein and no fat within 30 minutes of workout completion
    b) 3:1 ratio of high glycemic index carbohydrates and protein and some fat within 30 minutes of workout completion
    c) 3:1 ratio of low glycemic index carbohydrates and fat within 30 minutes of workout completion
    d) 3:1 ratio of high glycemic index carbohydrates and fat within 30 minutes of workout completion
    e) 3:1 ratio of low glycemic index carbohydrates and protein and some fat within 30 minutes of workout completion
    • b) 3:1 ratio of high glycemic index carbohydrates and protein and some fat within 30 minutes of workout completion
    • High glycemic index carbohydrates can create larger increases in levels of serum glucose, thus facilitating the repletion of glycogen.
    • Study results have suggested that ingesting protein and a small amount of fat with carbohydrates could facilitate the repletion of glycogen and enhance the muscle protein balance
  21. A healthy, 32-year-old athlete presents to you with questions about supplemental creatine. Which of the following symptoms should you tell him is associated with creatine use?
    a) Muscle cramping
    b) Cardiac complications
    c) Weight loss
    d) Renal complications
    e) Constipation
    • a) Muscle cramping
    • Associated with muscle cramps, weight gain, and diarrhea have all been reported. Can increase levels of uric acid, which could lead symptoms of gout.
  22. A physiological adaptation to endurance exercise is:
    A. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy
    B. Polycythemia
    C. Increased plasma volume
    D. Fat sparing metabolism
    C. Increased plasma volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. What is responsible for amenorrhea in female athletes
    • Loss of Estrogen
    • Dec GnRH-->dec LH-->Ovarian suppression-->dec Estrogen
    • Luteal Phase of the menstral cycle shortens
    • Runner - more mile-->greater shortening of luteal phase
  24. Most female athletes don't mind missing periods, so why is amenorrhea such a big deal?
    • Loss of Estrogen (consequence of amenorrhea) lowers BMD (bone mineral density), increased risk of stress fracture (2-4x greater than eumenorrhic athletes)
    • Lower energy (dec IGF-1, GH, Free T3, elevated cortisol
    • Seems to be associated with endothelial dysfunction (may be a predictor long-term atherosclerotic disease progression and CV disease risk)

    Estrogen: reduced bone resorption, stimulates calcitonin, promotes renal calcium retention, binds to receptor on endothelial cell-->up-regulation of Nitric Oxide-->Vasodilation

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