Interwar Years (ch3)

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Interwar Years (ch3)
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  1. League of Nations
    • An international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes.
    • Founded by Woodrow Wilson, US president
    • Main objective: preserve the peace of the world through
    •    International cooperation
    •    Arbitration
    •    Collective security
  2. Arbitration
    A process whereby quarrelling parties submit their dispute to a third party for a ruling.

    Used by the League of Nations
  3. Collective Security
    A promise binding each member to protect/help any member that was the victim of aggression.

    Part of the League of Nations
  4. Group of Seven
    • The most famous group of artists from twentieth century Canada
    • Rejected realism and used bold strokes, heavy paint and contrast in their work
    • Only painted Canadian landscapes
    • Tom Thompson (leader)
    • 1920 (first exhibition)
  5. Emily Carr
    • Emerged in the '20s and '30s
    • One of CA's greatest artists
    • Klee Wyck meaning the "laughing one", was her first novel and won the Governor General's award
  6. Foster Hewitt
    • Emerged in the '20s
    • Famous hockey radio broadcaster
    • Coined "He shoots! He scores!"
  7. Pier 21
    • The port the majority of European immigrants came through
    • In Halifax
    • During the '20s groups of up to 1,000 people came in at a time, processed in groups of 250. As many as 10 immigration officers were needed at a time to examine incoming passengers
    • By 1927 the top 5 groups coming in were from England, Poland, the US, Scotland and Ireland
  8. Paris Peace Conferences and the Treaty of Versailles
    • 1919
    • Canada obtained it's own seat
    • CA independently signed the Treaty
  9. Chanak Crisis
    • 1922
    • British sent troops to Turkey fearing Turks occupying the British controlled port (___)
    • This would give Turkey easy access to Europe through the Balkans (through a waterway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean)
    • PM King made clear to Britain they wouldn't act without thought, the first time CA refused to show unconditional support for British imperial war policies
  10. Halibut Treaty
    • 1923
    • CA and US signed a treaty for the protection of the (___) on the coast of BC and Alaska
    • Never came to pass as US senate didn't approve
    • A step toward autonomy in foreign affairs for CA
    • No British official signed off, only a CA
  11. Imperial Conference
    • 1926
    • It was made known that Canada was in no way subordinate to Great Britain
    • It was said after this conference that "a colony had become a nation"
  12. Balfour Report
    • 1926
    • Acknowledged that the dominions were autonomous (independent) communities within the British Empire, and that the CA Governor General was only a rep of the Brit monarch.
    • Happened at the Imperial Conference
  13. Statute of Westminster
    • 1931
    • Recognized in law the report that had made CA an autonomous dominion at the Imperial Conference in '26
    • Allowed the dominions to make their own laws
    • Dec 11 '31 CA became a sovereign state as part of the British Commonwealth of Nations
  14. British Commonwealth of Nations
    Established as an association of free and equal states, and membership was based on a common allegiance to the British Crown - former colonies of Britain
  15. Red Scare
    The fear of communism
  16. Trade Unions
    Formed when CA workers joined together to gain improved housing, job training programs, and higher pay
  17. Collective Bargaining
    Employee representatives bargaining with the employers
  18. Bloody Saturday
    • June 21 1919
    • Winnipeg
    • Workers had been striking to force change
    • City was in a stand-still
    • Many gathered to watch a parade protesting against the arrest of the (10) strike leaders
    • The crowd overturned a street car and lit it on fire
    • The Mounted Police charged the crowd
    • One man died, 30 were injured and hundreds were arrested
  19. Winnipeg General Strike
    • 1919
    • See Bloody Saturday
    • Led labour leaders to become more involved in politics
    • Didn't have the planned effect - in fact, more negative than positive came short term, but it drew attention to the social and economic problems many people faced
  20. Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)
    Later became NDP (1961)
  21. King-Byng Crisis
    • 1926
    • PM William Lyon Mackenzie King and Governor General Lord Byng
    • 1925 PM King (Liberal Party) won fewer seats than Conservatives
    • King had support of Progressives though, and refused to resign based on "responsible govt" (PM and cabinet stay in power as long as they have majority of votes) so as long as the progressives supported him he was good
    • By 1926 King was losing the support of the progressives, so before he could lose charge of parliament, he requested GG Byng dissolve parliament for a new election
    • Byng believed King should have resigned when the Conservatives won more seats, so he refused
    • King resigned
    • Byng invited the Conservative party to form the government
    • Soon (new) PM Arthur Meighen lost a vot ein the HoC, leading to a new election being called
    • King was re-elected PM

    First time a GG outright refused the request of a PM to dissolve parliament
  22. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
    US group that tried to use women's new-found influence (after the war with the changing ways) to ban all production, sale and consumption of alcohol
  23. Prohibition
    The ban of all production, sale and consumption of alcohol
  24. Rum-runners
    Folks who smuggled booze into the US
  25. Agnes Macphail
    First female MP, 1921, rural Ontario

    As an MP:

    • called for prison reform - led to the investigation of CA's prisons in the mid-'30s 
    • founded the Elizabeth Fry Society of Canada to help women who are imprisoned


    In '54 she was appointed to the Senate, but died before the appointment was fulfilled
  26. Famous Five
    Five Albertan women who initiated the Persons Case

    • Emily Murphy,
    • Nellie McClung,
    • Henrietta Muir Edwards,
    • Louise McKinney
    • and Irene Parlby
  27. Emily Murphy
    In 1916 she became the first female judge in the British Empire
  28. "Persons" case
    • 1927 the Famous Five asked the supreme court to rule on whether women were considered "persons" as defined in the BNA Act of 1867
    • After three months it was ruled that the Fathers of Confed. had not intended "qualified persons" to include women
    • 1928 the Famous Five, with PM King's assistance, brought this to the British Privy Court (the highest court at the time)
    • 1929 said yes, includes women, furthermore "to those who ask why the word 'person' should include females, the obvious answer is, why should it not?"
  29. Laissez faire
    • "Let do"
    • Governments didn't interfere with the economy
  30. Market economy
    An economy where individual producers and consumers determine the kinds of goods and services produced, and their prices
  31. Recession
    When economic activity is in decline
  32. Boom
    Periods of extreme prosperity (economically)
  33. Bust
    A serious downturn (in the economy)
  34. Great Depression
    • Stock market crashed, economy followed suit - North America went into the (______)
    • unemployment
    • bankruptcies
    • climatic disasters
    • poverty
  35. Staples
    Basic products (eg. crops, timber and minerals)

    Canada's economy depended heavily on a few of these - CA's most important exports
  36. Black Tuesday
    • The day the stock market crashed
    • October 29, 1929
    • Not the sole cause of the depression, but an indicator of what was going wrong
  37. Buying on Margin
    Buying stocks with borrowed money in the hopes that the stocks would increase fast and vast. Then they would sell, repay the loan, and be left with loads of cash

    Also "speculation"
  38. Speculation
    Buying stocks with borrowed money in the hopes that the stocks would increase fast and vast. Then they would sell, repay the loan, and be left with loads of cash

    Also "buying on margin"
  39. Tariffs
    Duties collected on goods coming into a country
  40. Protectionist
    • When the government protected home industries from foreign goods by discouraging imports through high tariffs
    • American (_____)ism caused other countries to lose their export markets
  41. The New Deal
    • US President Franklin Roosevelt's solution to the depression (got him elected)
    • A set of relief programs to support the working class who were all starving with no jobs by giving them work
  42. John Meynard Keynes
    • A British economist who proposed radical solutions
    • Suggested instead of conserving money governments should borrow money and spend it on huge employment projects, injecting it into the economy
  43. Deficit financing
    John Meynard Keynes's idea that instead of conserving money governments should borrow money and spend it on huge employment projects, injecting it into the economy
  44. Riding the rails
    Hitchhiking on trains in search of jobs initially, then because there was nothing else to do
  45. Pogey
    • Similar to modern-day welfare programs
    • A program made by the govt. providing vouchers that could be exchanged for essentials like food
    • It was kept low so people wouldn't want to be on it, but resulted in many starving and suffering from disease because it wasn't enough
  46. Unemployment Relief Camps
    • Initially set up for single, unemployed men
    • Keep them all together and away from the towns and cities so they don't cause a kerfuffle
    • Men would work for $0.20 a day with room and board
  47. Bennet's New Deal
    Bennet's version of Roosevelt's (____)

    called for...

    • progressive taxation (make more, pay more)
    • max number of hours per work week
    • minimum wage introduced
    • stronger regulation of working conditions
    • unemployment insurance
    • health and accident insurance
    • revised old age pension plan
    • agricultural support
    • a marketing board to regulate wheat prices
  48. On-to-Ottowa Trek
    • A protest that started in BC and worked it's way toward Ottawa
    • Unimpressed work camp dudes road the rails picking up support as they went, looking for "real jobs and wages"
    • They were stopped in Regina by the RCMP
    • Riot broke out
    • One striker was allowed to meet PM Bennet, but nothing came of it, so people began to support King again instead
  49. Regina Riot
    • On-to-Ottawa trek interrupted by this
    • 300+ RCMP in riot gear and 50 on horseback fought the protesters with baseball bats, billy clubs and tear gas for 3+ hours. Dozens of trekkers were injured, and one policeman died
  50. Dionne Quintuplets
    • The first set of quintuplets to live more than a few days
    • Born near North Bay, Ontario
    • Ont. Govt took over welfare of the babies 
    • they were sent to a nursery/hospital, barely saw their parents and family, were tested on and observed
    • a road was built to their nursery so they could be a tourist attraction
    • merchandise was sold, and the babies provided a distraction and generated an estimated tourist industry of over $500 mill
    • after a 9 year legal battle were given back to their parents

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