Ch 2 1 Pharm

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  1. Drug administration methods
    • Enteral
    • Parenteral
  2. Enteral methods
    • Oral
    • Sublingual
    • Buccal
    • Rectal
  3. Parenteral methods
    • Inhalation
    • Injection
    • ----intravenous
    • ---- intra-arterial
    • ----subcutaneous
    • ----intramuscular
    • ----Intrathecal
    • topical
    • transdermal
  4. Oral
    • Have to be highly lipid soluble to pass through GI and blood stream (and for absorption)
    • First pass effect: less than 100% bioavailable
  5. First pass effect
    • Drug transported to liver for destruction before reaching site of action
    • IV 100% bioavailable
    • Same reason why 2 people same height and weight don’t experience the same effects
  6. Sublingual
    Under tongue
  7. Buccal
    • Btwn cheek and gums
    • Absorbed transmucosally (through oral mucosa) into venous system
    • bypassing the liver (first pass effect)
    • Faster effectiveness
  8. Rectal
    • Poor absorption
    • Advantage: gives drug to pt who is continuously vomiting
  9. Parenteral info
    • Don’t use GI tract
    • Travel to target quicker and more predictable
    • Avoid first pass effect
  10. Intravenous
    • Used in emergencies but can have adverse effectives if presented too quickly
    • Prevents large fluctuation in the plasma concentration of the
  11. Intra-arterial
    • Can be difficult/dangerous
    • Used to administer radiopaque dyes for various diagnostic procedures
  12. Subcutaneous
    • Directly below skin when local response desired
    • Ex: anesthesia, insulin injection, hormonal contraceptives
    • Slow, prolonged release of medication into circulation
    • Disadvantage: only provide small amount of drug
  13. Intramuscular
    • Rapid effect w/o sudden, large increase in plasma volumes (as seen in IV injection)
    • Disadvantage: prolonged, localized, soreness and pain
    • For muscle spasms
  14. Intrathecal
    Delivers medication within a sheath (such as spinal arachnoid membrane, pia mater) → right next to spinal cord for better access of SC bypassing BBB

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Ch 2 1 Pharm
2015-06-09 18:25:56

Ch 2 1 Pharm
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