Ch2 3 Pharm

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Ch2 3 Pharm
2015-06-09 14:28:12
Ch2 Pharm

Ch2 3 Pharm
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  1. Oxidation
    • Most common method into metabolite
    • Addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen
    • Enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum
  2. Reduction
    • Remove oxygen or add hydrogen
    • Enzymes in the cell cytoplasm
  3. Hydrolysis
    • Original product broken down into components
    • Enzymes located intra and extracellular
  4. Conjugation
    • Drug or metabolite coupled with an endogenous substance
    • Found in the cytoplasm or on the endoplasmic reticulum
  5. Primary organ in biotransformation
  6. Enzyme induction
    • Taking the medication for a long time alters drug metabolism
    • ----Leads to faster break down and decreased effectiveness and half life
    • --------Pt may need more medication, more frequently
  7. Drug tolerance
    Increased dose to produce the same effect bc of quicker break down of drug
  8. Primary drug excretion site
    • Kidneys
    • Filtration
    • Only polar drugs or metabolites excreted bc impermeable to epithelium lining
    • Non-polar are reabsorbed into body bc lipophilic
  9. Kidney Active transport functional unit
  10. When is the Lungs the drug excretion site
  11. Clearance
    • Tissue(s)/organ(s) ability to eliminate the drug
    • Based on
    • ----Blood flow to the organ
    • ----Portion of drug removed from the plasma as it passes through the organ
    • ----dosage
  12. If person has problems with liver/kidneys have problems with …
    • drug metabolism/excretion
    • pain killers/anesthesia
  13. Systemic clearance versus single organ clearance
    Systemic clearance consists of excretion as well as biotransformation
  14. Extraction ratio
    Dependent on the organ or tissue eliminating the drug from the plasma and on the perfusion of the organ