Ch 14 1 Pharm

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Author:
jld15
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303864
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Ch 14 1 Pharm
Updated:
2015-06-09 16:35:46
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14 Pharm
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Ch 14 1 Pharm
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  1. Two categories of drugs for pain relief
    • Opioids
    • Non-opioid analgesics
  2. Non-opioid analgesics
    • Acetaminophen
    • Aspirin
  3. Opioid Analgesics
    • Naturally occurring, semisynthetic, synthetic agents that relieve moderate to severe pain
    • Bind to specific neuronal receptors that are located in the CNS
    • Potential to cause dependence
    • Controlled substances
    • Narcotic
    • ----Have sedative or sleep inducing response and high doses cause unresponsiveness and stupor
    • Opiate
  4. Sources of opioids
    • Synthetic
    • ----Basic chemical components
    • Semisynthetic and natural
    • ----Opium poppy
    • --------20 active compounds
    • ------------Morphine
    • ------------Codeine
    • ----Does not contain an analgesic effect
  5. Endogenous Opioids
    • Receptors in brain and SC for exogenous substances
    • Released during stressful situations and interact with other neurochemicals and immune system to deal with various physical and psychosocial stress; pain
    • Three distinct families
    • ----Endorphins
    • ----Enkephalins
    • ---- Dynorphins
  6. Three classes of opioid receptors
    • Mu
    • Kappa
    • Delta
  7. Mu
    • Most important in mediating analgesic effect of many opioids
    • ----Ex: morphine
    • Located in brain and SC
    • Side effects
    • ----* Leads to cellular change and possible opioid abuse and addiction
  8. Kappa/ delta
    • More selective in receptor class or subclass they stimulate
    • Don’t have as strong side effects, can block mu receptors
    • Mixed agonist- antagonist opioids
  9. Opioid classifications
    • Strong agonists
    • Mild-mod agonist
    • Mixed agonist- antagonists
    • Antagonists
  10. Strong agonists
    • Treat severe pain
    • High affinity for certain receptors interact primarily with mu opioid receptors in CNS
    • Ex: Methadone (Dikiohine, methadose)
    • Morphine (MS Contin, Roxanal, Statex)
  11. Mild-to-moderate agonists
    • Treat pain of moderate intensity
    • Exe: codeine
  12. Mixed agonists-antagonists
    • Act differently at specific receptors
    • ----Some agonist and antagonist like activity at the same time
    • Produce adequate analgesia with less risk of side effects
    • Less addictive
    • Ex: nalbuphine (Nubain)
  13. Antagonists
    • Blocks opioid receptors (especially mu affinity)
    • treat opioid overdose and addiction
    • Ex: naloxone (Narcan)
  14. Opioid suffix
    -done

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