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  1. Data that is Empirical is....
    based on evidence that is deservable and repeatable
  2. Theory
    set of statements that summarize what is known about some phenomena
  3. Hypothesis
    specific prediction about a study's outcome
  4. Good theories are ____ and ____
    parsimonious; falsifiable
  5. Parsimonious
    between two theories, the simpler is preferred
  6. Falsifiable
    must be able to be proven wrong
  7. Order of the Theory-Data Cycle:

    research, hypothesis, support, data, theory, refute
    theory --> research --> research design --> hypothesis --> data --> refute/support (back to data)
  8. Signs of Pseudoscience:

    1. _____ claims
    2. Overreliance on ______
    3. Lack of _____ _____ 
    4. "________"
    5. talk of _____ instead of _____
    • 1. exaggerated
    • 2. anecdotes
    • 3. peer review
    • 4. "psychobabble"
    • 5. proof; evidence
  9. Why is using experience as a source of information problematic?

    The brain makes.... (1 answer)
    Experience is... (3 answers)
    The brain makes -- MODELS OF REALITY (faulty perceptions)

    • Experience --
    • 1. doesn't have a comparison group
    • 2. exposed to a biased sample
    • 3. confounded
  10. Cherry-picking
    seek and accepting only supporting evidence
  11. Present-present Bias
    focuses on what is present and ignores what is absent when two events are co-occuring
  12. The Dependent variable was _____.
  13. The Independent variable is _____
  14. Pop-up Principle/Availability Heuristic
    things that come easily to mind are more likely to happen
  15. Claim
    argument that someone is trying to make about assets
  16. Frequency Claim
    describes how frequently ONE event occurs; focuses on ONE variable
  17. Association Claim
    how two variables are associated or correlated
  18. Types of Association Claims (4, how is X related to Y):
    positive - X increase; Y increase

    negative - X increase; Y decrease

    no relationship - no correlation btwn X and Y 

    curved relationship - when X is low, Y increases; when X is high, Y decreases (r=0)
  19. Causal Claims
    experimental design; the manipulated variable causes a change in the measured variable
  20. The three criteria for establishing causality are:
    covariance, temporal precendence, no plausible alternatives
  21. Covariance
    there is a relationship between variables
  22. Temporal Precedence
    cause variable must come first in time before the other variable
  23. No Plausible Alternatives
    No third variables
  24. Construct Validity
    how well the variables are measured or manipulated
  25. External Validity
    the extent to which the results can be generalized
  26. Statistical Validity
    the degree to which a statistical conclusion is correct or reasonable

    involves type I and type II errors
  27. Statistical Validity -- Type I Error
    false alarms; too many analyses
  28. Statistical Validity -- Cohen's Guidelines (for Pearson r)

    .___ = small/weak
    .___ = medium
    .___ = strong


  29. Statistical Validity -- Effect Size

    _____ when overlap is less
    _____ when overlap is more
    determines importance of an effect, depends on SAMPLE SIZE

    larger; smaller
  30. Statistical Validity -- Type II Error
    misses; too small fo sample size
  31. Internal Validity
    the extent to which the observed effect is caused ONLY by the experimental treatment condition
  32. Name the three principles for the Belmont Report
    Benefience; Respect for Persons; Justice
  33. The Belmont Report - Benefience
    protect participants from harm and ensure well-being
  34. The Belmont Report - Respect for Persons (3)
    informed consent

    protection of vulnerable participants (elderly, children)

    freedom from coercion - no feeling pressured to participate
  35. The Belmont Report - Justice
    benefits outweighs the burdens
  36. APA added principles to The Belmont Report
    fidelity and responsibility - est. relationship of trust

    integrity - being accurate and honest
  37. Conceptual Variable vs. Operational Definition
    Conceptual Variable - construct that has not been operationalized

    Operational Definition - turning a concept of interest into something measurable
  38. Types of Operationalizations (broad)
    self-report measures, observable measures, physiological measures
  39. Self Report Measures - Free Format - IAT
    pairs good vs. bad with other stimuli

    questionable validity
  40. Self Report Measures - Surveys
    well developed set of response formats that are easily replicated
  41. Likert Scale
    statement with scale rating numbers
  42. Yes/No Items
    marks yes or no for each question
  43. Forced-Choice Scales
    two choices that are statements
  44. Name the Operationalization Scales
    Nominal; Ordinal; Interval; Ratio

  45. Operationalization Scales - Nominal
    categories, no ordering; assigned numbers have no inherent meaning

    EX. (male = 1, female = 2)
  46. Operationalization Scales - Ordinal
    rank order only; meaningful order, but not equal distances between them

    EX. US rankings of colleges
  47. Operationalization Scales - Interval
    rank order + equal intervals; the difference between two points is MEANINGFUL

    EX. temperature
  48. Operationalization Scales - Ratio
    rank order + equal intervals + RATIONAL ZERO POINT

    EX. Kelvin temperature scale
  49. What is categorical? Which scales are categorical?
    categorical - can only take certain values, not measured

    Nominal and Ordinal Scales
  50. What is continuous? Which scales are continuous?
    continuous - can take any value within a range, measured

    Interval and Ratio scales
  51. What are the three types of reliability?
    test-retest; interrater; internal
  52. Internal Reliability
    the extent to which multiple measures are all answered the same way by the same set of people
  53. What is Chronbach's Alpha?

    a ≥ _._ = _____
    _._ ≥ a ≥ _._ = _____
    _._ > a = _____
    average of all the possible item-total correlations

    • a ≥ 0.9 = excellent
    • 0.8 > a ≥ 0.7 = acceptable
    • 0.5 > a = poor
  54. Criterion Validity
    • whether the measure is related to a
    • concrete outcome that it should be related to
  55. Convergent Validity
    concerned with the relationship of a measure to other tests or measurements
  56. Discriminant Validity
    extent to which the measure IS NOT related to other measures designed to assess other conceptual variables
Card Set:
2015-06-11 04:49:41
research methods psychology

Cards for chapters 1-7
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