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Which area(s) of the vertebral column does the Sympathetic nervous response stimulate?
Which area(s) of the vertebral column does the Parasympathetic nervous response stimulate?
True or False: the Sympathetic (Fight or Flight) nervous response DILATES the eye pupils.
What effect does the Parasympathetic (Rest and Digest) nervous response have on the bronchi?
CONSTRICTS the bronchi.
Breathing is thus more controlled.
What happens to the bronchi in a sympathetic response?
Bronchi are DILATED. This ensures high intake of oxygen in a fast-paced breathing response to stress.
What is the cause of Gullain Barre Syndrome (i.e Neuritis)?
Give ONE cause of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Genetic (a risk factor)
Give ONE main cause of Motor Neuron Disease (ALS)
Genetic (risk factor has been found)
Give one main cause of Alzheimer's Disease
What is one possible cause of Parkinsons Disease?
Give ONE cause of Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Give ONE cause of meningitis
Give one common cause of headaches
Give ONE cause of a Migraine
Give one cause of Epilepsy
‘Sciatica’ is the term given to pain down the
leg caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve.
Give ONE cause.
Give 6 symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
- Low voice
- Shuffling Steps
- Jerky Movements
- Muscle Stiffness
- Lack of Movement
- Mask-like Face
What part of the body does Parkinson's Disease affect?
Neurons in the BRAIN
What is the allopathic treatment for Parkinson's Disease?
Give 6 symptoms of Meningitis
- Petechiae (purple/red spots on skin)
- Severe Headache
- Kernig's Sign
- Brudzinski Sign
Give the allopathic treatment of Meningitis
Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles
or other cavities of the brain caused by blocked circulation or absorption
Give 6 symptoms.
- Neck Pain
What is the allopathic treatment for Hydrocephalus?
Give 6 Symptoms of ICP (Increased intracranial pressure)
- Impaired Eye Movement
What is the allopathic treatment of ICP (Increased Intracranial Pressure)?
What function does the Hypoglossal cranial nerve have?
Is it sensory or motor?
Cranial Nerve 12 (XII) - The Hypoglossal nerve seves Tongue Movement and Speech.
It has Motor Function
What function does the Vagus nerve have?
Cranial Nerve 10 (X) - the vagus nerve aids in Swallowing, Taste and Senses from the epiglottis
It is both MOTOR AND SENSORY
What does the Accessory/Spinal nerve do?
The 11th Nerve (XI).
Assists in Neck and Shoulder muscle movements, Swallowing
It has Motor function.
The glossopharyngeal nerve assists in.....
Taste, Swallowing, and Tongue Sensations.
It is the 9th Cranial Nerve (IX).
It is BOTH Motor AND Sensory.
The Vestibulochochlear nerve assists with...
Hearing and Balance.
This is the 8th Nerve (VIII).
It is SENSORY only
The Facial Nerve is Sensory in function. True or False.
The Facial nerve (7th/VII) is BOTH Motor AND Sensory.
It helps with Taste (sensory) and Facial Expressions (motor)
The Abducens nerve helps with Eye movements and Proprioception. True or False.
This is the 6th (VI) Nerve.
It holds MOTOR functionality.
The Trigeminal nerve aids in Facial Sensations and Chewing. True or False.
This is the 5th (V) nerve.
It has BOTH Motor AND Sensory capacity.
What does the Trochlear nerve do?
It assists in Eye movements and Proprioception.
It is the 4th (IV) cranial nerve.
It has MOTOR function.
What does the Oculomotor nerve do?
It assists in Eye movements, Eyelid blinking, Proprioception, Pupil Size
It is the 3rd (III) cranial nerve.
It has MOTOR function.
What does the Optic nerve do?
Aids in VISION.
It is the second (II) cranial nerve.
It is Sensory in function
What does the Olfactory nerve do?
Governs sense of Smell.
It is the 1st cranial nerve.
It is Sensory in function.
Give 4 symptoms of a MIGRAINE.
- Incredibly painful head
- Visual disturbances
What are 2 Differential Diagnosis of MIGRAINES?
Give 4 signs and symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
- Blurred Vision
- Progressive Paralysis
Give 2 Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Motor Neuron Disease (ALS)
What is the definition of Ganglia?
A cluster or group of nerve cell bodies.
What is depolarisation?
A shift from a resting membrane potential (-70mv) becoming less negative, reaching zero, and becoming more positive.
What is repolarisation?
The membrane is restored back to its resting potential of -70 mv
What does the Refractory Period refer to?
- The period of time after repolarisation in
- which a nerve cannot generate
- another action potential because Na+
- and K+ are on the wrong sides of the
- During this period the Na-K pump
- pumps Na+ out and some K+ back into
- the cell to restore the resting potential.
What is the definition of a Neurotransmitter?
- A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger (nerve messengers) used to create
- synaptic transmission – transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve to
Give a definition for a Nerve
A bundle of one or more neurons