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2015-06-13 18:59:45

All of the quizzes put together to form a study guide
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  1. The three domains?
    Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archae
  2. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus
    • Streptococcus: Mouth/A chain of ball-shaped like cells
    • Staphylococcus: Skin/Ball-Shaped grape-like cluster of cells
  3. The Five Kingdoms
    • Protista: Microscopic Eukaryotes
    • Monera: All Prokaryotes (No nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, single celled)
    • Fungi: Organisms that directly absorb their nutrients
    • Plantae: Green Plants
    • Animalia: Animals formed by sperm and egg, NO cell wall
    • (Protoctista): Archae, Protozoa, Fungi
  4. Words Describing Colonies
    • Opaque: Not see-through
    • Margin: Outer edge of a colony
    • Translucent: See-through
    • Elevation: Height of a colony
    • Texture: Outer edge of a colony
  5. Superkingdom Classification
    • 1. Domain
    • 2. Kingdom
    • 3. Phylum
    • 4. Class
    • 5. Order
    • 6. Family
    • 7. Genus
    • 8.Species
    • Driving Koalas Present Catastrophe On Freeways Going South
  6. All living things contain...
    • Plasma Membrane
    • ATP for energy
    • DNA
  7. Phylogeny
    Study of the evolutionary history of organisms.
  8. Binary Fission
    How bacteria usually divide and replicate
  9. Meiosis and Mitosis
    • Meiosis: Essential for sexual reproduction, reduces genetic material content & number of chromosomes by exactly one half
    • Mitosis: Produces 2 identical daughter cells
  10. Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    • Ionic: Most chemicals, give up and accept electrons.
    • Covalent: Most organic compounds, sharing of electrons.
  11. First vaccine used against Smallpox?
  12. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    Double bond to carbon, therefore NOT bound to all possible carbons
  13. Robert Hooke
    Invented the first compound microscope and looked at cork cells
  14. Jospeh Lister
    Used phenol as a disinfectant spray over surgery patients
  15. Semmelweis
    Encouraged washing hands between autopsies and childbirth
  16. Robert Koch
    Came up with four postulates and contributed to the germ theory
  17. Virchow
    Came up with the idea of biogenesis
  18. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
    Achieved 300x magnification and saw "Animalicules"
  19. Phycology
    The study of algae
  20. Flocculent
    Distinct small particles floating around in your tube
  21. Spontaneous Generation
    • Living organisms arising from something nonliving
    • Pasteur disproved this with the swan-necked flask
  22. Germ Theory
    Microorganisms that invade other organisms can cause disease in humans
  23. Biogenesis
    Life comes from life
  24. Cell Theory
    All living things are composed from cells
  25. Carbs and Fats
    • Carbs: Monosaccharides, Glycosidic bonds
    • Fats (lipids): Tryglcerides, Ester bonds
  26. Alexander Flemming
    Discovered antibiotics (fungus on a plate of bacteria)
  27. Pasteur
    • Fermentation: Sugar to alcohol without air
    • Pasteurization: Kill most bacteria, DOES NOT steralize (just kills off bacteria)
    • Rabies Vaccine: Using rabbits for attenuation (making less dangerous/pathogenic).
    • Germ Theory: Microbes can invade other organisms and cause disease
    • Proposed aseptic techniques: Prevent contamination by unwanted microbes
  28. Jenner
    • Vaccine Work: Milkmaids/Cowpox for Smallpox
    • Created immunity in a little boy by injecting him with disease, then vaccinated him which killed the microbes 
    • Avirulent: does not cause harm
    • Veriolation: making people breathe in a particular virus
  29. Paul Ehrlich
    1st to coin chemotherapy and created Salvarsan (arsenic compound against syphilis).
  30. Lavoisier
    • Tried to disprove Spontaneous Generation
    • Oxygen needed not the Vital Life Force
  31. Dehydration Synthesis
    Combines small molecules together to form larger ones
  32. Hydrolysis
    Molecules are broken apart when water is added
  33. Sterols and Glucose Molecules
    • Sterols: 4 ring compounds, spacing in Eukaryotic membranes
    • Glucose: Spacing in Prokaryotes
  34. Sizes of Microbes
    • 1000 micrometers (μm) = 1 millimeter (mm)
    • 1000 nanometers (nm) = 1 micrometer (μm)
    • i.e. Convert 100 μm to nm?
    • -Since going from big to small, move decimal to right 3.
    • Answer: 100,000 nm
  35. Transmission, Reflection, Refraction, Absorption, and Diffraction
    • Transmission: Light passing through an object, how we see it with a microscope
    • Reflection: Light bouncing off, gives objects their color
    • Refraction: Bending of light, makes glass rods invisible in oil
    • Absorption: When an object takes up light and gives off a different wave length
    • Diffraction: Bending of light around small openings
  36. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy
    • Scanning: Metal is sprayed over a sample so electrons will bounce off
    • Transmission: The specimen is in a thin section of plastic, it's see-through
  37. Confocal Microscopy
    • Version of Fluorescence Microscopy
    • Cover everything with fluorescent dye
    • 3D Images
    • Laser scanning
    • Puts image back together again
    • UV light is used
  38. Atomic Force Microscopy
    • Visualizing atoms to 1 micrometer
    • The technology is newer
    • It has the same idea as STM
    • 3D Structures
    • Like reading braille
  39. Gram +
    • Thick layer of peptidoglycan
    • Contains Techoic Acid
    • Alternating NAG and NAM molecules
  40. Gram -
    • Contains an outer second membrane and lipopolysaccharides
    • Alternating NAG and NAM molecules
  41. Spore, Negative, Gram, and Acid Fast Stains
    • Spore: Heat is used to break down the spore wall and the inside becomes green.
    • Negative: Staining the background of the actual microbe, rather than the microbe itself to determine of there is a capsule.
    • Gram: 2 or more dyes, shows the differential in cocci and bacillus.
    • Acid Fast: Visualizes species that contain Mycolic Acid (that can't be seen), making them waxy.
  42. Dark and Bright Field Microscopy
    • Dark: Condenser focuses light at different angles to focus off the specimen
    • Bright: Condenser focuses light through the specimen, what we use in lab
  43. Fluorescence and Phase Contrast Microscopy
    • Phase Contrast: Stains that kills most orgs, special condenser/lenses that bring out small refractive indexes in various cell structures
    • Fluorescence: Proteins from Jellyfish, attached to antibodies (Immunofluorescence), UV light used
  44. Uracil and Thymine
    Uracil is found in RNA and Thymine is found in DNA
  45. Mono, Atri, Peritri, Lopho, Amphitrichous
    • Monotrichous: Only one flagella
    • Atrichous: No flagella
    • Peritrichous: Many flagella covering the cell
    • Lophotrichous: Few flagella at one end
    • Amphitrichous: Flagella at both ends
  46. Hydrol, Transfer, Isomer, Ly, Ligase
    • Hydrolase: Hydrolysis (breaking apart molecules using water)
    • Transferase: Transfer of functional groups (amino acids, phosphate, etc.)
    • Isomerase: Rearrangement of atoms within a molecule
    • Lyase: Removal of groups of atoms without hydrolysis
    • Ligase: Joining of two molecules
  47. Exo and Endocytosis
    • Exocytosis: Extrustion or kicking out of waste particles
    • Endocytosis: Engulfment, bringing something inside of the cells, mainly food particles
  48. Metabolism, Catabolism, and Anabolism
    • Metabolism:The sum of all chemicals in a living organism
    • Catabolism: Releasing energy, ATP build up, hydrolytic reactions
    • Anabolism: The using up of energy to build up larger things
  49. Active and Passive Transport
    • Active: Requires energy, moves from low to high concentration gradient
    • Passive: DOES NOT require energy, moves from high to low concentration gradient
  50. Hypotonic and Hypertonic Solutions
    • Hypotonic: Higher concentration of water outside of the cell than inside, cell would EXPLODE
    • Hypertonic: Lower concentration of water outside of the cell than inside, cell would SHRINK
  51. Chemotaxis
    Bacteria have the ability to swim towards or away from certain chemicals
  52. Cytoplasmic Streaming
    Movemement of fluid-like substance (mainly from the cytoplasm) within a plant or animal cell
  53. Peptidoglycanis
    Responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall
  54. Microtubules and Microfilaments
    • Microtubules: Hollow, Kinesin transports along it, easily created and destroyed 
    • Microfilaments: Solid, made of actin, easy come apart and rebuild, help most in cell division.
  55. Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Smooth: Responsible for lipid synthesis in a Eukaryotic cell
    • Rough: Ribosomes are attached to its surface
  56. Golgi Apparatus
    • Responsible for modifying proteins in a Eukaryotic cell
    • Has a shipping and recieving side
  57. Lysosomes
    • Fuses with vesicles
    • Contains digestive enzymes to breakdown bacteria/viruses or dead cell material
  58. Mitochondria
    • Powerhouse of the cell
    • ATP created within the folds (cristae) of the DNA
    • Endosynbiosis
  59. Endospores and Exospores
    • Endospores: Bacteria cells create them side the mother cells, allows them to survive when the environment becomes unfavorable
    • Exospores: They grow by budding off on the outside of the cell
  60. ChemoAUTOtroph and ChemoHETEROtroph
    • Chemoautotroph: Uses chemicals as an energy source, and its carbon source is CO2
    • Chemoheterotroph: Uses chemicals as an energy source, and its carbon source is organic compunds
  61. PhotoAUTOtroph and PhotoHETEROtroph
    • Photoautotroph: Energy source is light, carbon source is CO2
    • Photoheterotroph: Energy source is light, carbon source is organic compounds
  62. Apo, Co, and Haloenzyme, Cofactor
    • Apoenzyme: Incomplete enzyme, missing certain pieces, unable to function
    • Coenzyme: Organic molecule, needed for some enzymes to function, vitamins
    • Haloenzyme: Fully assembled ready-to-work enzyme
    • Cofactor: Inorganic molecule, needed for some enzymes to function, minerals
  63. Beta Oxidation
    • Fatty acids are broken down
    • Takes off 2 carbons attached to Coenzyme-A
  64. Competitive and Noncompetitive Inhibition
    • Competitive: The inhibitor binds to the Active Site
    • Noncompetitive: The inhibitor binds to the Allosteric Site
  65. Electron Transport Chain
    • Plasma Membrane in bacteria, Mitochondria in Eukaryotes
    • FADH2: 4 protons per 2 ATP
    • NADH: 6 protons per 3 ATP
  66. CO2 feeds into the...?
    Calvin Benson Cycle to generate energy
  67. Deamination
    • Part of catabolism
    • The removal of an amine group
  68. Esterfication and Hemolysis
    • Esterfication: The reaction between an alcohol and a carboxyl group
    • Hemolysis: The destruction of red blood cells
  69. Light-Dependent Stage
    • MUST have light.
    • Converts ADP + P=ATP
    • Also NADP to NADPH
    • Photophosphorylation is also apart of this which consists of Cyclic and Noncyclic.
  70. Light-Independent Stage
    • DOES NOT need light to react.
    • ATP to reduce CO2 to sugar.
    • Calvin Benson Cycle
  71. Chemiosmosis/Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • The enzyme ATP Synthase has protons [H+] come through it to generate most of the cell's energy
    • Takes 2 protons to generate 1 ATP molecule
  72. Total # ATP produced in Aerobic Cellular Respiration and Fermentation?
    • ACR: 38, carbons in glucose are lost in the form of COin bothprep/transition step as well as the Kreb's Cycle
    • Fermentation: 2
  73. Selective, Differential, and Enrichment Media
    • Selective: Only certain types of organisms can grow in it (7% NaCl test)
    • Differential: Multiple organisms can grow and can react differently, whether through color or growth patterns (blood agar)
    • Enrichment: Grows one particular media that is usually to low to detect
  74. Homolactic and Heterolactic Fermenter
    • Homolactic: Ferments only lactic acid
    • Heterolactic: Ferments lactic acid and ethanol
  75. Senescence
    Bacterial aging, when the cell poles from each generation get older and older
  76. Most Probable Number
    Uses three sets of five tubes and can be used, along with a table, to determine the average as well as a range of total microbes in a given sample
  77. Obilgate Aerobe, Microaerophile, Obligate Anaerobe, Facultative Anaerobe, Aerotolerant Anaerobe
    • Obilgate Aerobe: Sediment at the top, growth occurs where high concentrations of oxygen have diffused into the medium
    • Microaerophile: Sediment towards the center of the tube, growth occurs where a small level of oxygen has diffused
    • Obligate Anaerobe: Magnetesomes, sediment is at the bottom, growth occurs where there is no oxygen
    • Facultative Anaerobe: Prefer oxygen, but can live without it (with or without), sediment more on top but also spread throughout, growth occurs where there is oxygen but it everywhere
    • Aerotolerant Anaerobe: Survive in oxygen but don't use it (doesn't make a difference), sediment spread out evenly, growth occurs throughout (there isn't more in one single place)
  78. SulA, SlmA, MinC, MinD, MinE
    • SulA: Prevents cell division when DNA damage has occurred
    • SlmA: Prevents the Z-ring from forming over DNA
    • MinC: Prevents Z-ring from forming over the poles of the cell
    • MinD: Attaches to the cell poles
    • MinE: Kicks off the proteins found at the poles so they can race to the other pole
  79. Bacterial Growth Curve
    • Lag Phase: Adjustment, growing in size
    • Log Phase: Exponential, rapid cell division, when antibiotics work best
    • Stationary Phase: 1 born, 1 dies, nutrients running out, horizontal gene transfer, spore making
    • Death Phase: No nutrients
  80. Bacterial Growth Temps
    • Psychrophiles: VERY cold (the coldest), modified fatty acids (unsaturated)
    • Psychotrophs: Moderately cold
    • Mesophiles: 37 degrees C, Humans
    • Thermophiles: Hotter
    • Hyperthermophiles: VERY hot (the hottest), heat love orgs., High G/C ratio, tight knit proteins
  81. Barophiles and Halophiles
    • Barophiles: This is a physical influence on the pattern of growth, part of Hydrostatic Pressure (high or low pressures of growth)
    • Halophiles: Require large amounts of salt to survive
  82. Quorum Sensing
    • Inter-Species Signal: Used to communicate with all bacteria
    • Intra-Species Signal: Only used to communicate with bacteria in the same species
  83. TSI Tube
    • Yellow/Red due to the Phenol Red
    • Black due to the sulfur interacting with the iron salt
    • Slant: Can either be NR (neutral reaction=still red) or A (acidic=yellow)
    • Butt: NR, A (yellow or black), @ (yellow or black with gas), + (black), - (not black)