Ch 18 1 Pharm

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Ch 18 1 Pharm
2015-06-10 16:52:37
18 Pharm

Ch 18 1 Pharm
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  1. Sympathetic and parasympathetic are physiologic antagonists
    • ----Can take a sympathetic antagonist or a parasympathetic antagonist → for some
    • Ach causes responses in parasymp and symp
    • ----That’s why we have selective medications to prevent stimulating other receptors on other organs and adverse effects
  2. Somatic nervous system
    • Voluntary control of SM
    • Uses ONE neuron
  3. Autonomic nervous system
    • Responsible for controlling involuntary bodily functions
    • ----Blood pressure
    • ----Thermoregulation
    • ----Digestion
    • Uses TWO neuron system
    • ----Preganglionic fibers myelinated
    • ----Post ganglionic fibers unmyelinated
  4. Divisions of ANS
    • Sympathetic
    • Parasympathetic
  5. Sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
    • Neurons located in the thoracic and upper lumbar regions of the spinal cord
    • Preganglionic neurons shorter
    • ONE preganglionic neuron, MANY post synaptic fibers
    • ----More diffuse reaction than parasympathetic
    • Cell bodies arise from intermediolateral gray columns of T and L spinal cord → ventral root → sympathetic ganglion
  6. Sympathetic ganglia located in three areas
    • Paired vertebral ganglia
    • Unpaired pre-vertebral ganglia
    • Terminal ganglia
  7. Function of sympathetic system
    • Increase CO
    • Decrease blood blow (allowing more for SM)
    • Increase cellular metabolism
  8. Parasympathetic (Craniosacral)
    • Neurons originating in the mid-brain, brainstem and sacral regions of the spinal cord; exit via CN 3,7,9,10
    • Post ganglionic fibers longer
    • Synapse in terminal ganglion on organ
  9. Cranial portion parasym
    Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X
  10. Pelvic region parasymp
    Pelvic splanchnic nerves
  11. Function of parasymp
    • Conserves body’s energy
    • Increases intestinal digestion and absorption
    • Store energy for future needs
  12. Effects of ANS on various organs
    • Sympathetic versus parasympathetic
    • ----Heart
    • ----Lung
    • ----Liver
    • Physiologic antagonism
    • Mobilization of energy versus storage of energy
  13. Autonomic reflexes
    • Sensors monitor change
    • Adjust accordingly
    • Peripheral sensor monitors change →info relayed to CNS and integrated → adj made
    • Baroreceptors: drop in BP → Info to brainstem for integration→ increase in sympathetic discharge to the heart and peripheral vasculature, and parasympathetic decreased → increase CO, increase peripheral vascular resistance increasing BP
  14. Autonomic Integration
    • Complex
    • Various CNS levels