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2015-06-11 15:39:30


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  1. Epidemiology
    the study of the distributionand determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems.
  2. The 5 W’s?
    • 1.Diagnosis or health event (what)
    • 2.Person (who)
    • 3.Place (where)
    • 4.Time (when)
    • 5.Causes, risk factors, & modes
    • of transmission (why/how)
  3. Distribution
    •Epidemiology is concerned with the frequency and pattern of health events in a population.
  4. Frequency
    • not only the number of health events (# cases of meningitis or diabetes in a population), but also the relationship
    • of that number to the size of the population. 
    • (rate)
  5. Pattern
    • occurrence of health-related events by
    • time, place, and person.
  6. Characterizing health events by time,
    place, and person are activities of?
    Descriptive epidemiology.
  7. Determinants
    causes/factors that influence the occurrence of disease and other health-related events.
  8. Epidemiologists use analytic epidemiology
    to provide the “Why” & “How” of event….

    –think chain of infection
  9. Health-related states or events may
    be anything that affects the well-being of a population.
    –Amount of exercise
    –Seat-belt use
    –Genetic markers of disease risk
  10. Epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, data-driven) of the distribution
    (frequency, pattern) and determinants
    (causes, risk factors) of health-related
    states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (patient is community, individuals viewed collectively), and the application of this study to the control of health problems.
  11. Community/Population is focus of
    •Identifying exposure or source that causes  illness
    •Number of other persons who may have been exposed
    •Potential for further spread in the community
    •Interventions to prevent additional
    cases or recurrences
    •INDIVIDUAL (HCP) vs Collective Health focus (PH)
  12. •1850s – an anesthesiologist who studied the cholera outbreak in London, “father of field epidemiology”
    John Snow
  13. Agent
    • An animate or inanimate factor that must
    • be present or lacking for a disease or condition to develop
    • •Categories of causative agents:
    • –Physical
    • –Chemical
    • –Nutrient
    • –Biological
    • –Psychological
  14. Physical agents
    • Various mechanical forces or frictions
    • that may produce injury or disease
    • –Extremes in temperature
    • –Radiation
    • –Trauma
    • –?Genetic?
    • •Sometimes classified by itself
  15. Chemical agents
    • Substances
    • –Dust
    • –Vapors
    • –Fumes
    • –Medicines
    • –Liquids
  16. Nutrient Agents
    • Dietary components whose absence or
    • excess results in disease
    • –Vitamins
    • –Minerals
  17. Biological agents
  18. All living infectious organisms
    • –Insects
    • –Worms
    • –Protozoa
    • –Bacteria
    • –Viruses
  19. Psychological Agents
    • Stressful circumstances in the
    • environment
    • –Fear
    • –Anxiety
    • -Prejudice
  20. Host
    • A living species (human or animal)
    • capable of being infected or affected by an agent
    • –Genetic susceptibility
    • –Immutable characteristics (sex, age)
    • –Acquired characteristics (immunological
    • status)
    • –Lifestyle factors (diet, exercise)
  21. Enviroment
    • All external to a given host or agent and
    • that is influenced and influences the host/or agent
    • –Climate
    • –Plant and animal life
    • –Human population distribution
    • –Socioeconomic factors
    • –Working conditions
  22. INFECTIOUS Agents can be classified in terms of their ability to produce disease in the
    • •Infectivity
    • •Pathogenicity
    • •Virulence
    • •Invasiveness
    • •Toxigenicity
    • •Antigenicity
  23. Infectivity
  24. Organism’s ability to spread rapidly from
    • one host to another host.
    • –Influenza
  25. Pathogenicity
    • The ability of an agent to cause disease
    • after infection.
    • •Measured as the proportion of infected
    • persons infected by an agent who then experience clinical disease.
  26. Virulence
    Ability to produce severe disease
  27. Invasiveness
    Capability to spread and disseminate in the host.
  28. Toxigenicity
    Capability to produce poisonous products (such as exotoxins)
  29. Antigenicity
    Capability of stimulating the hostto produce an immune response (productionof antibodies or antitoxins)
  30. NON-INFECTIOUS Agents classified in terms of their ability to cause injury to biological
    tissue in host:
    • •Chemical (toxicity)
    • •Physical (size and shape)
    • •Psychological Stress (chronic or sudden onset)
  31. Reservoirs of the Agent
    • •Agent’s habitat
    • •Can be human, animals, insects, plants,
    • soil, or inanimate matter in environment.
  32. Human reservoirs: Carriers
    • •Persons who harbor infectious agents but
    • have no overt signs or symptoms.
    • •Sub-clinical infections, incubatory,
    • convalescent, chronic.