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About what % of Americans experience some form of psychological disordere in their lifetime?
Are people with mental illnesses more violent than people without mental illness?
NO, they are more likely to be victims to violence
Which psychological disorder is the most common?
- Substance abuse and addiction like caffeine, nicotine etc.
- Substance abuse, anxiety disorders, mood, antisocial, and schitzo.
How do we define abnormality in violation of cultural or community norms?
- If it's outside the cultural norm.
- Ex. how we dress and how we eat compared to others
How do we define abnormality in violation of statistical norms
Just like culture and community norms but instead we use statistics and if they are not in the same category they are abdnormal
How do we define abnormality in personal discomfort
- If the person themselves are not comfortable with the behavior or how they feel about their own behaviors or feelings.
- Pitfalls: they don't admit problems like addiction and they can think they have a problem when they are actually fine
- Not going to leave it to persons individual judgement. This is looking at if they are functioning in life like eating, going to school or working.
- This can also tie in with personal discomfort because they wont admit it
What criteria do we use to define abnormality
Give most weight to maladaptivness and we still consider the others to some extent but emphasis on maladaptiveness
Mental Disorders: Biological Factors
- Genes: can inherit a gene that makes you more susceptible to addiction that others. Behavior is important in order to get the addiction cuz if you never drink you wont get addicted.
- Biological Process: Something that you have no control of like being exposed to alcohol while being born. Transgender as well.
Mental Disorders: Psychological Factors
Cognition, emotion, and behavior
Mental Disorders: Sociocultural Factors
- Cultural context: If culture doesn't define something to be normal then that will determine whether or not that something is a disorder.
- Ex. In America if you're dependent on others that is not normal since we emphasize independence and freedom.
An intense, irrational fear of an object or situation that is not likely to be dangerous.
Some simple phobias:
Fears: Heights, flying, enclosed spaces, insects, open spaces, spiders, clowns.
- Person experiences anxiety so intense and long lasting that it disrupts their daily function.
- Generalized anxiety disorder
- Panic disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
Excessive and long lasting anxiety not focused on any particular object or situation. Can be called free flowing anxiety it just happens randomly to anything
- Experience of recurrent terrifying panic attacks
- It's psychological and if you change the way you think like I'm going to die and accept nothing is going to happen then it will go away.
- Biggest Problem: Panicking about having another anxiety attack
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- Persistent, upsetting, and unwarranted thoughts (obsessions) that motive repetitive behaviors (compulsions)
- Even if they checked something they have to check again even if they know its fine.
Treatment for OCD
- They are behavioral Treatments:
- The main treatment is prolonged exposure so you expose a person to what they are obsessed about.
- Ex. Obsessed about being dirty you can put ketchup on someone hand and have them tolerate it before they can wash it off and then keep extending the time needed to tolerate.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Stress reaction resulting from a traumatic experience like:
- Emotional "numbing"
- Part of PTSD
- Reliving the experience (like hearing a boom when you were at war)
- Part of PTSD
- You feel like you're not where you actually are, your mind is elsewhere and your body is here. They do this to get away from trauma so their bind is somewhere else
- Part of PTSD
- The person doesn't feel close to anyone anymore and they don't feel loving or anything. They don't feel like they can get attached to people as easily as before, it;s like a protective bubble.
Treatment of PTSD
When you talk it's the entire brain region instead of the amygdala which will lessen the effects of PTSD. They have to be bale to talk about it in a safe enviornment
Causes of Anxiety Disorder
- Biological Factors: Identical twins have a greater likely hood of sharing the same anxiety.
- Cognitive Factors: Exaggerate dangers in one's environment. This is where if you keep perceiving danger when there isn't any you will be more anxious than others. Like the feeling of not knowing what to do when something dangerous happens.
- A lot of treatments are cognitive
- Person shows symptoms of somatic, or bodily, disorder even though there is no physical cause. Types of disorders:
- Conversion Disorder
- Somatization Disorder
- Pain Disorder
- A physical symptom with no organic or biological cause. When you convert a psychological trauma into a physical one.
- Ex. Loss of eyesight. Combodian women who didn't know each other seemed like they all lost their eyesight and they have been to an eye doctor and they said they were fine. They all had one thing in common and they noticed a killing of a family member in front to their eyes and they saw this trauma and they couldn't see anymore.
- A strong unjustified fear of having a serious physical problem.
- Usually when they think that they have some physical problems when they don't actually have it
- Dramatic, but vague, reports about a multitude of physical problems rather than any specific illness.
- Ex. They may not say that they have a brain tumor (hypochondriasis) but they say that they may have this or that like my head is very hot and might explode.
- Person complains of sever, often constant pain with no physical cause
- Ex. When they just say that they have pain even though the don't
Cause of Somatoform Disorders
- Diathesis Stress Approach:
- Sociocultural factors may also play a role when they talk about pain instead of how they feel.
Diathesis Stress Approach
- Means vulnerability.
- Traits include greater sensitivity to physical sensations of self consciousness. Ex. They have a sensitive threshold for pain and then obsess about it then they can get a somatoform disorder because of the stress
- Disassociation: A sudden disruption in one's memory, consciousness or identity.
- Dissociative Fugue
- Dissociative Amnesia
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
Sudden loss or personal memory and the adoption of new ID in a new locale. They don't know who they are so they just go somewhere and become someone else by establishing a new ID
- Sudden memory loss
- Ex. Like being in a car crash and not remembering the details of that
Dissociative Identity Disorder
- Commonly called multiple personality disorder
- Person appears to have more than on ID
- Might have different names, and different physical characteristics, voices, gestures
- Some may know about the existence of others and some don't
Dissociative ID disorder Research Findings
- Majority have suffered sever, unavoidable, persistent abuse in child hood. Usually sexual abuse and they disassociate while abuse is happening and they start becoming that ID.
- Treatment: You don't want them to dissociate so you talk about the events as yourself in order to reinforce that it's you who did it and not someone else
- Dissociation is a way to cope with trauma
- Extreme mood disturbance such as depression or mania, especially when the moods are not consistent with surrounding events.
- Ex. Like if you lose someone close to you, then you feel very sad and it follows a consistent event but disorders happen when you get something like this but the events have not occurred so no consistent
- Major Depressive Disorder
- Dysthymic Disorder
- Depression Screeners
Major Depressive Disorder
Person feels sad and hopeless for weeks on end. Typically loses interest in all activities and takes pleasure in nothing and is often accompanied by changes in eating and sleeping habits.
Sad mood, lack of interest, and loss of pleasure is not as intense as major depressive disorder
- CES-D Scale
- You can get a lot of false positive when using screeners because it is not diagnostic
Suicide and Depression
- Some form of depression has been implicated in 40% to 60% of suicides.
- Thinking about committing suicide is a symptom of depressive disorderes
Suicides Rates in the US
- Most common among those 65 and older and is not the 3rd leading cause of death among adolescents and the leading cause among college students.
- Women attempt suicide 3 times as often as men but the men are more successful because of the methods they use
Levels of Risk in Suicide
- Ideation - when they are depressed
- Intent - Second level, this is risky
- Do they have the means to do it?
- Do they have a plan? - like doing it next thursday?
- A person alternates between deep depression and mania.
- Consist of Mani and cyclothymic disorders
This is a very agitated, usually elated, emotional state. Kind of like a high and are generally impulsive
- Pattern of less extreme mood swings
- Bipolar equivalent of dysthymia
Other biological Causes of Mood Disorders
- Imbalances in the brains neurotransmitters - serotonin
- Malfunctioning of the endocrine system - hormones
- Disruption of circadian rhytms
- This is what dictates your sleep and wake periods and they are based on light.
- Seasonal Affective Disorder:
- Very sensitive to light and so during winter they feel depressed and when summer comes they feel much better
- This is one of the most sever and disabling of all mental disorders
- Disorder involving disturbed thinking, emotion, perception and behavior.
Biological Factors for Schizophrenia
- Possible abnormalities in brain chemistry, especially in excess of dopamine
- Possible neruodevelopmetal abnormalities - which is the disruption of brain development before birth through childhood
Psychological Factors for Schizophrenia
- Psychological factors alone are no longer considered to be primary causes of schizo.
- It is now a combination of psychological and social influences that contribute to its course.
- Stressful family communication patterns are critical cuz unsupportive and blamative attitude towards them give them more stress.
- Def: Are long standing patterns of behavior that are maladaptive
- This is a category that is by itself because we think that there is something that is actually dysfunctional in the persons personality, it doesn't occur in episodes.
Personality Disorders and Culture
- Define highly by culture.
- Dependent personality disorder also narcissistic disorders, schizoid personality disorder and anti social personality disorder
Anitsocial Personality Disorder
- Doesn't mean that the person is not very social in psychology.
- Def: Marked by long term pattern or irresponsible, unscrupulous and sometime criminal behavior.
- Pretty much the person lacks a consciousness and because they don't have it they can hurt others and break rules.
- The individual fails to show anxiety, remorse, or guilt in their behaviors.
- This can result from reactive attachment disorder, where they never formed an attachment with other people.
Types of Treatment for Psychological Disorders
- Psychodynamic Therapy
- Behavioral Therapies Applications
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Humanistic Therapy
- Use of Anti-depressants:
- --SSRI, MAO, Tricyclics
- ECT - Electro Convulsion Therapy
SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
The block the reuptake process so there will be more serotonin molecules available in the synaptic space so they stick around longer and the serotonin levels are higher
Work on both serotonin and norepinephrine, so when the SSRI don't work then you use this treatment
- Short Active: Benzodiazepines
- Include ativan, zanax, valium and have a high potential for addiction.
- Long Active: They are also like SSRI's
- Def: Being out of touch of reality like delusions and hallucinations
- Medications that work on lowering the dopamine levels in the brain, it can also work on serotonin as well.
ECT - Electro Convulsive Therapy
They put jolts of electricity through your brain, but it is the last resort because of all the side effects like memory loss, confusion, and disorientation.
- This is talk therapy.
- Try to target the persons unconscious, not useful to ask them anything because they are not aware of why they are doing something.
- They try to get to the unconscious through means like dream analysis, or through free association. Hypnosis as well.
- Free Association - Bring up a topic or word and you say the first thing that comes to mind
- When you expose a person to something that they are afraid of. At first you want to construct a fear hierarchy until you reach the maximum level.
- They go through each of the steps imaginally and when they feel anxiety they do the breathing exercises. Then you have to do the same thing in real life as well
- Trying to make a person develop an aversion (negative reaction) to something that they don't want to do anymore but they can't stop. Like drinking.
- So you can do Antabuse + Alcohol = nausea
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Where we try to change the persons thinking in order to change their behaviors.
- Changing their faulty thinking patterns like uncontrollable, stable, and internal because that is not controllable. You want to change them so they can control it
- The goal is to have the person reach their highest potential.
- Realizations of our best selves
- Like what are the potentials within you that you are trying to manifest, problems are the road blocks that get in the way so you want to get rid of those road blocks in order to achieve your best self
They use that seems to fit best in the situation rather than a single approach because it won't be able to solve every problem