NeuroBio Chapter 7

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NeuroBio Chapter 7
2015-06-14 16:48:50
euroBio Chapter

euroBio Chapter 7
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  1. Define: anterior (p. 180)
    With respect to the CNS, pointing near or towards the head
  2. Define: rostral (p. 180)
    With respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neruaxis along toward the front of the face

    "Toward the beak"
  3. Define: posterior (p. 180)
    With respect to the CNS, located near or toward the tail
  4. Define: caudal (p. 180)
    With respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neruaxis away from the front of the face

    "Toward the tail"
  5. Define: dorsal (p. 180)
    With respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neruaxis toward the top of the head or the back

    "Toward the back"
  6. Define: ventral (p. 180)
    With respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neruaxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body

    "Toward the belly"
  7. Define: midline (p. 182)
    sn imagined line running down the middle of the nervous system
  8. Define: medial (p. 182)
    Structures closer to the midline
  9. Define: lateral (p. 182)
    Structures further away from the midline
  10. Define: ipsilateral (p. 182)
    Reference to when two structures are on the same side as the body

    Ex: The right ear is ipsilateral to the right eye
  11. Define: contralateral (p. 182)
    In reference to when two structures are on opposite sides of the body

    Ex: The right ear is contralateral to the left ear
  12. Define: midsagittal plane (p. 182)
    The plane of the section resulting from splitting the brain into equal right and left halves
  13. Define: sagittal plane (p. 182)
    Sections parallel to the midsagittal plane
  14. Define: horizontal plane (p. 182)
    The plane parallel to the ground
  15. Define: coronal plane (p. 182)
    The plane perpendicular to the ground and to the sagittal plane
  16. Define: central nervous system (CNS) (p. 183)
    Consists of parts of the nervous system that are encased in bone: the brain and spinal cord
  17. Define: cerebrum (p. 183)
    The rostal-most and largest part of the brain
  18. Define: cerebral hemispheres (p. 183)
    The two hemispheres that result from splitting down the middle of the brain (separated by the deep sagittal fissure)

    In general, the right cerebral hemisphere receives sensations from, and controls movements of, the left side of the body; similarly the left cerebral hemisphere receives sensations from, and controls movements of, the right side of the body
  19. Define: cerebellum (p. 183)
    Lies behind the cerebrum 

    Contains as many neurons as both cerebral hemispheres combined (even though the cerebellum is smaller in size)

    The cerebellum is primarily a movement control center w/ extensive connections with the cerebrum and spinal cord.

    In contrast to the cerebrum, the hemispheres are controlling the ipsilateral sides (right controls right, left controls left)
  20. Define: brain stem (p. 183)
    Forms the stalk from which the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum sprout 

    Brain stem is the site where vital functions such as breathing, consciousness and control of body temperature take place

    Though damage to the cerebrum is survivable, damage to the cerebellum is usually fatal
  21. Define: Spinal Cord
    The spinal cord is the major conduit of information from the skin, joints, and muscles of the body to the brain and vice versa
  22. A transection of the spinal cord results in _________ and ________.
    A transection of the spinal cord results in anesthesia (lack of feeling) and paralysis of the muscles in parts of the body caudal to the cut (muscle still function, just cannot be controlled by the brain)
  23. Define: spinal nerve (p. 184)
    The structures through which the spinal cord communicates with the body

    Are part of the peripheral nervous system
  24. Define: dorsal root (p. 184)
    The nerve branch of the spinal cord that contains axons bringing information into the spinal cord 

    DAS (dorsal, afferent, sensory)
  25. Define: ventral root (p. 184)
    The nerve branch of the spinal cord that contains axons carrying information away from the spinal cord 

    VEM (ventral, efferent, motor)
  26. Define: peripheral nervous system (PNS) (p. 184)
    Comprises of all parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord (has two main parts: somatic and visceral)
  27. Define: somatic PNS (p. 184)
    All spinal nervers that innervates the skin, joints, and muscles that are under voluntary control
  28. Define: dorsal root ganglion (p. 185)
    Clusters of neuronal cell bodies outside the spinal cord that contain somatic sensory axons
  29. Define: visceral PNS (p. 185)
    Consists of neruons that innervate the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands

    AKA "Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)"
  30. Define: afferent (p. 185)
    Carry sensory information from skin or visceral organs via dorsal root toward a particular point in the spinal cord or brainstem

    Afferent (from the latin word "carry to")
  31. Define: efferent (p. 185)
    Carry motor information away from a point in the spinal cord or brainstem via ventral root to target (e.g. muscle, glands)

    Efferent (from the latin word "carry from")
  32. Define: cranial nerve (p. 185)
    In addition to nerves of the spinal cord, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that arise from the brain stem and innervate (mostly) the head

    Some of the cranial nerves are part of the CNS, somatic PNS, and visceral PNS
  33. Define: meninges (p. 185)
    The three membraneous layers (dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater) that separate the brain from its bone encasing
  34. Define: dura mater (p. 185)
    The outermost covering layer of the meninges
  35. Define: arachnoid membrane (p. 185)
    The meningeal layer inbetween the dura mater and pia mater
  36. Define: pia mater (p. 186)
    the thin membranous layer of the meninges that adheres closely to the brain
  37. Define: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (p. 186)
    The pia mater is separated from the arachnoid by a fluid-filled space. This subarachnoid space is filled with salty clear liquid called cerebrospinal fluid

    Thus, in a sense, the brain "floats" inside the head in this thin layer of CSF
  38. Define: ventricular system (p. 186)
    The fluid-filled caverns and canals inside the brain
  39. CSF is produced by a specialized tissue called the ______ _______ in the ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres
    CSF is produced by a specialized tissue called the choroid plexus in the ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres
  40. List and detail what the three primary benefits of the CSF confer
    1) Buoyancy: The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400 grams; however the net weight of the brain suspended in the CSF is equivalent to a mass of 25 grams. The brain therefore exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight, which would cut off blood supply and kill neurons in the lower sections without CSF.

    2) Protection: CSF can help to protect the brain tissue from injury when jolted or hit. In certain situations such as auto accidents or sports injuries, the CSF cannot protect the brain from forced contact with the skull case, causing hemorrhaging, brain damage, and sometimes death.

    3) Chemical stability: CSF flows throughout the inner ventricular system in the brain and is absorbed back into the bloodstream, rinsing the metabolic waste from the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier. This allows for homeostatic regulation of the distribution of neuroendocrine factors, to which slight changes can cause problems or damage to the nervous system. For example, high glycine concentration disrupts temperature and blood pressure control, and high CSF pH causes dizziness and syncope.
  41. Define: gray matter (p. 192)
    A generic term for a collection of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS. When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, neurons appear gray.
  42. Define: cortex (p. 192)
    Any collection of neurons that form a thin sheet, usually at the brain’s surface. Cortex is Latin for “bark.” Example: cerebral cortex, the sheet of neurons found just under the surface of the cerebrum.
  43. Define: nucleus (p. 192)
    A clearly distinguishable mass of neurons, usually deep in the brain (not to be confused with the nucleus of a cell). Nucleus is from the Latin word for “nut.” Example: lateral geniculate nucleus, a cell group in the brain stem that relays information from the eye to the cerebral cortex.
  44. Define: substantia (p. 192)
    A group of related neurons deep within the brain, but usually with less distinct borders than those of nuclei. Example: substantia nigra (from the Latin for “black substance”), a brain stem cell group in- volved in the control of voluntary movement.
  45. Define: locus (p. 192)
    A small, well-defined group of cells. Example: locus coeruleus (Latin for “blue spot”), a brain stem cell group involved in the control of wakefulness and behavioral arousal.
  46. Define: ganglion (p. 192)
    A collection of neurons in the PNS. Ganglion is from the Greek for “knot.” Example: the dorsal root ganglia, which contain the cells bodies of sensory axons entering the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. Only one cell group in the CNS goes by this name: the basal ganglia, which are structures lying deep within the cerebrum that control movement.
  47. Define: nerve (p. 192)
    A bundle of axons in the PNS. Only one collection of CNS axons is called a nerve: the optic nerve.
  48. Define: white matter (p. 192)
    A generic term for a collection of CNS axons. When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, axons appear white.
  49. Define: tract (p. 192)
    A collection of CNS axons having a common site of origin and a common destination. Example: corticospinal tract, which originates in the cerebral cortex and ends in the spinal cord.
  50. Define: bundle (p. 192)
    A collection of axons that run together but do not necessarily have the same origin and destination. Example: medial forebrain bundle, which connects cells scattered within the cerebrum and brain stem.
  51. Define: capsule (p. 192)
    A collection of axons that connect the cerebrum with the brain stem. Example: internal capsule, which connects the brain stem with the cerebral cortex.
  52. Define: commissure (p. 192)
    Any collection of axons that connect one side of the brain with the other side.
  53. Define: lemniscus (p. 192)
    A tract that meanders through the brain like a ribbon. Example: medial lemniscus, which brings touch information from the spinal cord through the brain stem.
  54. Define: differentiation (p. 195)
    The process by which structures become more complex and functionally specialized during development
  55. Define: forebrain (p. 195)
    During early development, the rostral-most vesicle of the brain is alled the prosencephalon. Pro is Greek for "before"; encephalon  is derived from the Greek for "brain"

    Thus, the prosencephalon is also called the forebrain
  56. Define: midbrain (p. 196)
    The vesicle located behind the forebrain; also called the mesencephalon
  57. Define: hindbrain (p. 196)
    Caudal to the midbrain is this third primary vesicle; also called the rhombencephalon
  58. Define: diencephalon (p. 196)
  59. Define: telencephalon (p. 196)
  60. Define: olfactory bulb (p. 196)
  61. Define: lateral ventricle (p. 197)
  62. Define: third ventricle (p. 197)
  63. Define: cerebral cortex (p. 197)
  64. Define: basal telencephalon (p. 197)
  65. Define: thalamus (p. 197)
  66. Define: hypothalamus (p. 197)
  67. Define: cortical white matter (p. 197)
  68. Define: corpus callosum (p. 197)
  69. Define: internal capsule (p. 198)
  70. Define: tectum (p. 199)
  71. Define: tegmentum (p. 200)
  72. Define: cerebral aqueduct (p. 200)
  73. Define: pons (p. 200)
  74. Define: medulla oblongata (medulla) (p. 200)
  75. Define: fourth ventricle (p. 200)
  76. Define: spinal canal (p. 203)
  77. Define: dorsal horn (p. 203)
  78. Define: ventral horn (p. 203)
  79. Define: sulcus (p. 205)
  80. Define: gyrus (p. 205)
  81. Define: temporal lobe (p. 207)
  82. Define: frontal lobe (p. 207)
  83. Define: central sulcus (p. 207)
  84. Define: parietal lobe (p. 207)
  85. Define: occipital lobe (p. 207)
  86. Define: hippocampus (p. 209)
  87. Define: olfactory cortex (p. 209)
  88. Define: neocortex (p. 209)
  89. Define: cytoarchitectural map (p. 210)
  90. Define: connectome (p. 211)