Hemodynamics 1

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jld15
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303999
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Hemodynamics 1
Updated:
2015-06-13 20:34:18
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Hemodynamics
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Hemodynamics 1
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  1. Hematologic System includes
    • Plasma
    • Formed elements
    • Lymphoid organs
  2. Plasma contains
    • 90 water/ 10 proteins
    • Formed elements
    • RBC’s
    • WBC’s
    • Platelets or thrombocytes
    • formed in bone marrow regulated by hormones released by the kidneys
    • important in renal system bc problems with renal system will impact RBC production
  3. Hematologic system Necessary for
    • Cellular metabolism
    • ----cells working properly
    • Defense against injury and infection
    • Acid-base balance
  4. Hematologic system integrated with:
    • Lymphatic system
    • Immune system
  5. Lymphoid organs
    • Primary
    • ----Thymus
    • ----Bone marrow
    • Secondary
    • ----Spleen
    • ----Tonsils
    • ----Payers patches
  6. Signs and Symptoms of Blood Disorders
    • Edema
    • Congestion
    • Infarction
    • Thrombus (clot)
    • Lymphedema
    • Hypovolemic Shock
    • ----Not enough BP to perfuse organs
  7. Blood Transfusions
    • Autologous transfusion
    • Recombinant human erythropoietin
    • ----Stimulates production of RBC
    • ----Doesn’t give immediate results
  8. Complications of blood transfusions
    • Post transfusion reaction
    • ----Fever
    • ----Extra congestion
    • TRALI (transfusion related acute lung injury)
    • ----Mild response à full blown respiratory distress
    • Allergic reaction
    • Fluid overload
  9. Why use packed RBC opposed to platelets?
    • Better O2 carrying capacity
    • More immediate rise in Hct opposed to fluid volume too
    • Decreased adverse reactions
  10. Hemochromatosis
    • Autosomal recessive disorder
    • ----Both parents need it to pass it
    • ----Look at family hx and genetic blood test
    • Lack effective way to remove excess iron leading to build up
    • Symptoms
    • ----Arthralgia
    • ----Weakness/fatigue
    • ----Increase in liver enzymes (damage)
    • Complications
    • ----heart, liver, kidney damage
    • Treatment
    • ----Therapeutic phlebotomy
    • --------Blood removed to decrease circulating iron but Challenges with fluid balances
  11. Anemia
    • Reduction in the oxygen capacity of the blood
    • ----Quality/ Quantity of RBC’s
    • ----Hgb <12.5 male & female
    • ----Hct <41% male, <37% female
  12. Reasons for anemia
    • Excessive blood loss (GI bleed)
    • Increased destruction of erythrocytes (sooner than the body can replenish)
    • ----Hemolysis; hemolytic
    • ----Autoimmune (lupus)
    • Decreased production of erythrocytes
    • ----Chronic diseases
    • --------Kidney (Cant make erethropoeitc for RBC formation)
    • ----Nutritional deficiency
  13. Common Anemia Categories
    • Chronic disease or inflammatory diseases
    • ----Renal diseases
    • ----Hepatic disease
    • ----Chronic infection
    • Nutritional conditions
    • ----Iron deficiency
    • ----Vitamin B12 deficiency
    • Infectious diseases
    • ----Hepatitis, sepsis, malaria, cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  14. Signs and Symptoms of Amenia
    • Weakness
    • DOE
    • Pallor
    • Tachycardia
    • Koilonychia
    • CNS – severe pernicious anemia (Vit b12)
    • Neuropathy B12 deficiency

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