EBP-Exam 1

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EBP-Exam 1
2015-06-15 09:09:48
ebp exam
EBP Exam1
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  1. What is the definition of Evidence?
    Available body of facts or information indicating weather a proposition is true or valid
  2. What could evidence be?
    • experience
    • ppl
    • books/journals
  3. What is evidence used for?
    making informed decisions about effectiveness of healthcare interventions/treatments
  4. What are the 3 most important words in medicine?
    I dont know
  5. What is the definition of EBP?
    • integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.
    • Meant to improve pt care
  6. What are the different types of EBP studies?
    • Cohort- longitudinal study involving two groups, one with treatment/1 without
    • RCT-treatment vs. non
    • Qualitative Studies- subjective, from the pt's perspective
    • Systematic Reviews- summary of evidence for specific Qs, based on various studies
  7. Name the 5S Hierarchy of Evidence from bottom to top
    • Studies
    • Syntheses
    • Synopses
    • Summaries
    • Systems
  8. What is the direction of the pyramid for the 5S hierarchy of evidence?
    The higher up, the less risk of bias and the more it applies to more peopel
  9. What is the best study for cause-and-effect?
  10. What is a systematic review of RCT?
    provides review of multiple RCT, give a more accurate and less biased view on the intervention
  11. What must you look for in studies?
    methods of assembly of guidelines and assure that they are sound and trustworthy
  12. What is the knowledge action cycle?
    • ID a problem
    • Adapt knowledge to a local context
    • Assess barriers to knowledge use
    • Select,Tailor and implement interventions
    • Monitor
    • Evaluate outcomes
    • Sustain knowledge use
    • (Repeat if necessary)
  13. What is the EBP process?
    • Ask a Question
    • Research the answer
    • Critically appraise data
    • Implement intervention
    • Evaluate effectiveness
    • (Repeat as necessary)
  14. What is the definition of research?
    "the systematic investigation into and the study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions"
  15. What does Nursing Research develop knowledge for?
    • Build Scientific Foundation for practice
    • Prevent disease and disability
    • Manage and Eliminate symptoms of illness
    • Enhance palliative care
  16. What are the two types of research?
    • Quantitative (Objective)
    • Qualitative (Subjective)
  17. What is Quantitative Research?
    Using numerical data
  18. What is Qualitative Research based on?
    Based on observation
  19. What are the 2 types of Quantitative Research Designs?
    • Experimental-introduce intervention/Treatment
    • Non-Experimental- Observational Research
  20. What types of studies are considered Experimental?
    • RCT or Quasi-experimental (non-randomized)
    • studies that induce a cycle of cause-and-effect
  21. What types of studies are considered non-experimental
    • cohort, case control, surveys
    • studies that collect data
  22. What are 3 types of Qualitative Research?
    • Grounded Theory- no theory to start
    • Phenomological Theory- Observing a phenomena
    • Ethnographic Research- researching patterns in cultures/ethnicities
  23. What is grounded theory?
    • "starting from the ground up"
    • Starting without a theory
  24. What is a Phenomonological Theory?
    Research a life experience through the people that have experienced it
  25. What is ethnographical theory
    studying patterns and lifestyles of different ethnicities and cultures
  26. What is a conceptual definition?
    an abstract theory to be studied
  27. What is an Operation Definition?
    The "operations" needed to measure and collect information on a concept
  28. What is a Causal Relationship?
    Does X cause Y, Cause-and-Effect
  29. what is an example of a causal definition?
    perception of pain
  30. What is an example of an operation definition?
    using a pain scale from 1-10 to measure pain
  31. What is an associative relationship?
    Is there an association between X and Y?
  32. What are the two types of relationships between X and Y?
    Causal and associative
  33. What are the 3 criteria for causality?
    • 1. There must be a shown correlation between X and Y
    • 2. X must cause Y before time does
    • 3. There is not confounding (3rd party) factor that could have caused Y
  34. What is an independent variable?
    What is being manipulated (x)
  35. What is a dependent Variable?
    What is being measured (y)
  36. What is biological plausability?
    That the causal relationship should agree with evidence from physiological studies (must be consistent with biological findings)
  37. What is a continuous variable?
    • A measurement
    • ex. Weight, Height
  38. What is a categorical variable?
    • A category
    • ex. Gender, Marital Status
  39. What is a hypothesis?
    A statement on the relationship between X and Y
  40. What are 2 types of hypotheses?
    • Directional: X will cause Y to get better/worse
    • Non-Directional: X will cause something to happen to Y
  41. What is a directional hypothesis?
    X will cause Y to get better/worse
  42. What is a non-directional hypothesis?
    X will cause something to change in Y
  43. What is a research hypothesis?
    States the prediction of a relationship
  44. What is a null hypothesis
    There is NO relationship between X and Y
  45. What is important to remember about hypotheses?
    They are either supported or not, never proved or unproved
  46. What are the 4 levels of measurement?
    • Nominal
    • Ordinal
    • Interval
    • Ratio
  47. What is nominal measurement?
    • numbers assigned to categories
    • ex. 1=male, 2=female
  48. What are ordinal measurements?
    • Rankings, but not equidistant 
    • ex. Letter grades: A, B, C, D
    • 1st place, 2nd place, 3rd place
  49. What are interval measurments?
    • rankings, equidistant, NO absolute 0
    • ex. temperature
  50. What are Ratio measurements?
    • Ranking, equidistant, absolute 0
    • ex. distance
  51. What is the equation for errors of measurement?
    obtained score = true score +/- error
  52. What is an obtained score?
    actual data collected from a study
  53. What is a true score?
    data obtained from a study that is infalliable
  54. What is a measurement error?
    • error measurement caused by factors that distort data
    • ex. biases, contaminantes
  55. What is reliability?
    that a measurement is consistent
  56. what is validity?
    • That an instrument measures what it says it measures.
    • ex. a thermometer measures the right temp
  57. What is stable and consistent measurements (reliability)
    2 people taking the same measurement
  58. What is stability/equivalence (reliability)
    same person gets same measurement at 2 different times
  59. What is internal consistency (reliability)?
    • the instruments are measuring the same attribute
    • ex. 2 BP cuffs are measuring the same BP for one pt
  60. What is internal validity?
    the extent that we know x causes y
  61. What is external validity?
    extent that the study can be generalized to a larger peopulation
  62. What are the 4 aspects of validity?
    • Face
    • Construct
    • Criterion-Related
    • Content
  63. What is Face validity?
    The instrument is measuring what it is supposed to
  64. What is content validity?
    Are there enough measurements (content) to compare the validity?
  65. What is criterion-related Validity?
    Do the measurements accurately predict the outcome?
  66. What is construct validity?
    • Does the study/instrument measure the right thing? 
    • is the pain scale actually measuring pain?
  67. What is a Construct Convergent Validity?
    Do different tests measuring the same thing agree?
  68. What is construct discriminant validity?
    Do different tests measuring the same thing differ?
  69. What are threats to validity?
    • Selection threats-biases
    • History Threat- other events causing Y
    • Maturation Threat-Time causing Y
    • Mortality/Attrition Rate- loss of participants
  70. What is homogenity validity?
    little variation between measurements
  71. What is heterogeneity variability?
    The measurements vary greatly
  72. What does PICOT stand for?
    • population (who are you studying)
    • intervention (what are you doing)
    • comparison (what can you compare it to)
    • outcome (what is the outcome)
    • time (in what time frame)
  73. Interrater- reliability
    2 people, 1 measurement
  74. Intrarater-reliability
    1 people, 1 measurement