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What is the definition of Evidence?
Available body of facts or information indicating weather a proposition is true or valid
What could evidence be?
What is evidence used for?
making informed decisions about effectiveness of healthcare interventions/treatments
What are the 3 most important words in medicine?
I dont know
What is the definition of EBP?
- integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.
- Meant to improve pt care
What are the different types of EBP studies?
- Cohort- longitudinal study involving two groups, one with treatment/1 without
- RCT-treatment vs. non
- Qualitative Studies- subjective, from the pt's perspective
- Systematic Reviews- summary of evidence for specific Qs, based on various studies
Name the 5S Hierarchy of Evidence from bottom to top
What is the direction of the pyramid for the 5S hierarchy of evidence?
The higher up, the less risk of bias and the more it applies to more peopel
What is the best study for cause-and-effect?
What is a systematic review of RCT?
provides review of multiple RCT, give a more accurate and less biased view on the intervention
What must you look for in studies?
methods of assembly of guidelines and assure that they are sound and trustworthy
What is the knowledge action cycle?
- ID a problem
- Adapt knowledge to a local context
- Assess barriers to knowledge use
- Select,Tailor and implement interventions
- Evaluate outcomes
- Sustain knowledge use
- (Repeat if necessary)
What is the EBP process?
- Ask a Question
- Research the answer
- Critically appraise data
- Implement intervention
- Evaluate effectiveness
- (Repeat as necessary)
What is the definition of research?
"the systematic investigation into and the study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions"
What does Nursing Research develop knowledge for?
- Build Scientific Foundation for practice
- Prevent disease and disability
- Manage and Eliminate symptoms of illness
- Enhance palliative care
What are the two types of research?
- Quantitative (Objective)
- Qualitative (Subjective)
What is Quantitative Research?
Using numerical data
What is Qualitative Research based on?
Based on observation
What are the 2 types of Quantitative Research Designs?
- Experimental-introduce intervention/Treatment
- Non-Experimental- Observational Research
What types of studies are considered Experimental?
- RCT or Quasi-experimental (non-randomized)
- studies that induce a cycle of cause-and-effect
What types of studies are considered non-experimental
- cohort, case control, surveys
- studies that collect data
What are 3 types of Qualitative Research?
- Grounded Theory- no theory to start
- Phenomological Theory- Observing a phenomena
- Ethnographic Research- researching patterns in cultures/ethnicities
What is grounded theory?
- "starting from the ground up"
- Starting without a theory
What is a Phenomonological Theory?
Research a life experience through the people that have experienced it
What is ethnographical theory
studying patterns and lifestyles of different ethnicities and cultures
What is a conceptual definition?
an abstract theory to be studied
What is an Operation Definition?
The "operations" needed to measure and collect information on a concept
What is a Causal Relationship?
Does X cause Y, Cause-and-Effect
what is an example of a causal definition?
perception of pain
What is an example of an operation definition?
using a pain scale from 1-10 to measure pain
What is an associative relationship?
Is there an association between X and Y?
What are the two types of relationships between X and Y?
Causal and associative
What are the 3 criteria for causality?
- 1. There must be a shown correlation between X and Y
- 2. X must cause Y before time does
- 3. There is not confounding (3rd party) factor that could have caused Y
What is an independent variable?
What is being manipulated (x)
What is a dependent Variable?
What is being measured (y)
What is biological plausability?
That the causal relationship should agree with evidence from physiological studies (must be consistent with biological findings)
What is a continuous variable?
- A measurement
- ex. Weight, Height
What is a categorical variable?
- A category
- ex. Gender, Marital Status
What is a hypothesis?
A statement on the relationship between X and Y
What are 2 types of hypotheses?
- Directional: X will cause Y to get better/worse
- Non-Directional: X will cause something to happen to Y
What is a directional hypothesis?
X will cause Y to get better/worse
What is a non-directional hypothesis?
X will cause something to change in Y
What is a research hypothesis?
States the prediction of a relationship
What is a null hypothesis
There is NO relationship between X and Y
What is important to remember about hypotheses?
They are either supported or not, never proved or unproved
What are the 4 levels of measurement?
What is nominal measurement?
- numbers assigned to categories
- ex. 1=male, 2=female
What are ordinal measurements?
- Rankings, but not equidistant
- ex. Letter grades: A, B, C, D
- 1st place, 2nd place, 3rd place
What are interval measurments?
- rankings, equidistant, NO absolute 0
- ex. temperature
What are Ratio measurements?
- Ranking, equidistant, absolute 0
- ex. distance
What is the equation for errors of measurement?
obtained score = true score +/- error
What is an obtained score?
actual data collected from a study
What is a true score?
data obtained from a study that is infalliable
What is a measurement error?
- error measurement caused by factors that distort data
- ex. biases, contaminantes
What is reliability?
that a measurement is consistent
what is validity?
- That an instrument measures what it says it measures.
- ex. a thermometer measures the right temp
What is stable and consistent measurements (reliability)
2 people taking the same measurement
What is stability/equivalence (reliability)
same person gets same measurement at 2 different times
What is internal consistency (reliability)?
- the instruments are measuring the same attribute
- ex. 2 BP cuffs are measuring the same BP for one pt
What is internal validity?
the extent that we know x causes y
What is external validity?
extent that the study can be generalized to a larger peopulation
What are the 4 aspects of validity?
What is Face validity?
The instrument is measuring what it is supposed to
What is content validity?
Are there enough measurements (content) to compare the validity?
What is criterion-related Validity?
Do the measurements accurately predict the outcome?
What is construct validity?
- Does the study/instrument measure the right thing?
- is the pain scale actually measuring pain?
What is a Construct Convergent Validity?
Do different tests measuring the same thing agree?
What is construct discriminant validity?
Do different tests measuring the same thing differ?
What are threats to validity?
- Selection threats-biases
- History Threat- other events causing Y
- Maturation Threat-Time causing Y
- Mortality/Attrition Rate- loss of participants
What is homogenity validity?
little variation between measurements
What is heterogeneity variability?
The measurements vary greatly
What does PICOT stand for?
- population (who are you studying)
- intervention (what are you doing)
- comparison (what can you compare it to)
- outcome (what is the outcome)
- time (in what time frame)
2 people, 1 measurement
1 people, 1 measurement