behavior sciences 3

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  1. dishabituation
    recovery of response to a stimulus after habituation has occurred.
  2. classical conditioning
    • taking advantage of reflexive unconditioned stimulus to turn a neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus
    • process is called acquisition
  3. extinction
    if bells rings enough times without dog getting the meat
  4. spontaneous recovery
    an extinct conditioned stimulus is presented again, a weak conditioned response may be exhibited.
  5. generalization
    broadening effect in which a stimulus similar enough to conditioned stimulus may produce the conditioned response
  6. discrimination
    Pavlov's dogs could learn to distinguish between two different bell tones.
  7. operant conditioning
    links voluntary behaviors with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors.
  8. father of behaviorism
    • BF SKinner
    • behaviorism is the theory that all behaviors are conditioned
  9. reinforcement
    is the process of increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior
  10. positive reinforcers
    increase a behavior by adding a positive consequence. Money is a strong positive reinforcer
  11. negative reinforcers
    • they also increase the frequency of behavior, but they do so by removing something unpleasant
    • aspirin takes away headaches, so that you are more likely to take aspirin next time you have a headache
  12. escape learning
    negative reinforcement: the role of the behavior is to reduce the unpleasantness of something that already exists (like headache)
  13. avoidance learning
    negative reinforcement is to prevent the unpleasantness of something that has yet to happen
  14. primary reinforcer
    is the fish that is fed to the dolphins
  15. conditioned reinforcer
    the clicker when trainers pair the fish with the clicker
  16. punishment
    uses conditioning to reduce the occurence of a behavior
  17. positive punishment
    adds an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior
  18. negative punishment
    • reduction of behavior when stimulus is removed
    • ex. forbidding kid to watch tv as a consequence for bad behavior
  19. fixed ratio schedules
    • reinforce a behavior after a specific number of performances of that behavior
    • continuous reinforcement is a fixed ratio schedule when rat rewarded every third time it presses a bar
  20. variable-ratio schedule
    reinforce a behavior after a varying number of performances of the behavior, but such that the average number of performances is relatively constant
  21. fixed interval schedules
    • reinforce the first instance of a behavior after a specified time period has elapsed
    • 60 seconds before the rat can get another pellet
  22. variable interval schedule
    • reinforce a behavior the first time that behavior is performed after a varying interval of time
    • rewarded after 20, 30 or 60 seconds
  23. which reinforcement schedule is most resistant to extinction and works the fastest?
    variable ratio
  24. shaping in reinforcement
    process of rewarding increasingly specific behaviors
  25. latent learning
    • learning that occurs without a reward but that is spontaneously demonstrated once a reward is introduced.
    • rats with food reward in the end performed just as well as those who had been trained to run the maze by operant conditioning
  26. preparedness
    rewarding birds after they peck (they naturally do peck) works well...birds are prepared
  27. instinctive drift
    it is hard to overcome instinctual behaviors in animals
  28. observational learning
    by watching others
  29. mirror neurons
    located in frontal and parietal lobes, fire when both individual performs the action and when individual observes someone else perform that action
  30. encoding
    process of putting new information into memory
  31. maintenance rehearsal
    repetition of a piece of information to either keep it within working memory or store it in short term (then long term)
  32. method of loci
    associating each item in the list with a location along a route through a building that has already been memorized
  33. peg-word
    • associates numbers with items that rhyme with or resemble the numbers
    • one is with sun
    • two with shoe
  34. chunking
    taking individual elements of a large list and grouping them together into groups of elements with related meanings.
  35. elaborative rehearsal
    the association of the info to knowledge already stored in long-term memory
  36. relearning
    information is stored, though you may not be able to recall, relearning is faster
  37. spacing effect
    longer the amount of time between sessions of relearning, the greater the retention of the info later on
  38. spreading activation
    • when one node of our semantic network is activated, the other linked concepts are also activated
    • priming is when recall is aided by first being presented with a word or phrase that is close to desired semantic memory
  39. alzheimer's disease
    degenerative brain disorder thought to be linked to loss of acetylcholine in neurons that link to the hippocampus
  40. confabulation
    process of creating vivid but fabricated memories
  41. agnosia
    • loss of the ability to recognize objects, people, or sounds
    • usually caused by physical damage to the brain by stroke or neurological disorder
  42. korsakoff's syndrome
    • memory loss caused by thiamine deficiency in brain
    • marked by retrograde and anterograde amnesia
  43. interference of forgetting
    • retrieval error caused by the existence of other (usually similar) information
    • proactive interference (old info interferes with new)
    • retroactive interference: new info causes forgetting of old info
  44. prospective memory
    • remains mostly in tact in old age when it is event based: when primed (seeing a grocery store and remembering to buy milk)
    • time based prospective memory tend to decline with age (like taking meds everyday at 7pm)
  45. source amnesia
    • person remembers the details of an event, but confused the context under which those details were gained
    • person hears story and later recalls the story has having happened to him.
  46. synaptic pruning
    weak neural connections are broken while strong ones are bolstered, increasing efficiency of our brain's ability to process info
Card Set:
behavior sciences 3
2015-06-16 00:07:58

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