Parasitology Lecture - Test II

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hbreard
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Parasitology Lecture - Test II
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2015-07-03 21:10:02
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Parasitology Test II Cestodes, Trematodes, & Protozoans
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  1. Adult tapes live in _____ while their larval tape forms can live in either ______ or ______ intermediate host.
    • - Vertebrates
    • - Vertebrate, or Invertebrate
  2. Taenia pisiformis:
    Definitive host - ___.
    Name the larval form - _____.
    Intermediate host for larval form - _____.
    • - Dog 
    • - Cysticercus pisiformis
    • - Rabbit
  3. Cestodes:
    ________ lives in the dog.
    ________ is the larvae form that lives in the rabbit, the intermediate host.
    • - Taenia pisiformis
    • - Cysticercus pisiformis
  4. Zoonotic Tapes cause a condition known as ______. This can result in intestinal cramping, diarrhea, and anal pruritus. 
    Name 6 zoonotic tapes:
    • - Dipylidiasis:
    •     - Taenia multiceps
    •     - Taenia serialis
    •     - Taenia crassiceps
    •     - Echinococcus granulosus * Liver parasite
    •     - Echinococcus multilocularis *lung parasite
    •     - Dipylidium caninum *
  5. Who are at the greatest risk of eating fleas containing larvae?
    Children
  6. The most zoonotic parasites are:
    • - Strongyloides stercoralis
    • - Echinococcus granulosus
    • - E. multilocularis
  7. ___________ are the primary definitive host for the most of the serious and often fatal tape infections.
    Wild animals
  8. Two forms of echinococcosis in humans:
    • 1. E. granulosus - The hydatid cyst, produces the disease called the cystic hydatid disease.
    • 2. E. multilocularis - More serious form; looks like a tumor.
  9. Aquatic Tapes:
    Phylum – _____.
    Class – _____.
    Order - _____ (pseudotapeworms) 
               _____ (true tapeworms) 
    Family - _____.
    Family – _____. (Cotyloda)
    Genera – _____
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order: Pseudophyllidea (pseudotapeworms)
    •           Cyclophylidae (true tapeworms)
    • Family: Eucestoda
    •             Diphyilobothridae 
    • Genera: Diphyllobothrim
    •              Spirometra
  10. Why are tapes so hard to get rid of?
    - 3 heads with 4 suckers per head make it much harder to get rid of.
  11. The Family ______ are dependent on water ways for intermediate host.
    Cotyloda
  12. The Order___________ have a scolex with 4 muscular cups (suckers) that serve the function of attachment and locomotion.
    - Cyclophyllidae
  13. On the apex of the scolex there is a dome shaped projection, called the ______.
    Rostellum
  14. Eucestoda scolex Dipylidium and Taenia:
    • - four radial cups (suckers)
    • - rostellum, which may or may not be retractable and has hooks.
  15. Eucestoda scolex Anoplocephala and Monezia:
    • - four radial cups.
    • - small to no rostellum with NO to vestigil hooks.
  16. Cotyloda scolex Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra:
    - weak cups and no rostellum, or hooks.
  17. _____. have marginal pores.
    _____ with one on the margin, _____ with one in the center, and _____ with two, one on each margin.
    • - Eucestode strobila
    • - Taenia
    • - Mesocestoides
    • - Diplydium
  18. _______ have only one uterine pore like the Taenia and Mesocestodes, but these aquatic forms discharge their eggs in ________.
    The terminal segments of these aquatic tapes become senile instead of gravid and are usually detatched rather than segments like the _______.
    • - Diphyllobothridae
    • - Intestines
    • - Eucestodes
  19. Egg structure:
    _____ – externally to protect the embryo.
    _____ – serves as a waste disposal area as well as a port for nutrition and protection.
    _____ – the vermiform embryo itself
    • - Egg capsule
    • - Embryophore
    • - Oncosphere
  20. The term _____ is applied to all cestode
    stages that parasitize the imtermediate host.
    - Metacestode
  21. The Metacestodal stage of the development - it bores into the wall of the intestines of the intermediate host with one mission, which is?
    To develop a scolex.
  22. What are 2 Treatments for Cestodes?
    • - Epsiprantel (CESTEX)
    • - PRAZIQUANTEL.
  23. Taenia pisiformis:
    Definitive host = ______.
    Intermediate host = ______.
    • - Taenia pisiformis - dog
    • - Cysticercus pisiformis - rabbit
  24. Taenia hydatigena:
    Definitive host = ______.
    Intermediate host = ______.
    AKA = ______.
    • - Taenia hydatigena - dog
    • - Cysticercus tenuicollis - cattle, sheep, swine
    • - "Thin-Necked Bladder Worm"
  25. Taenia solium:
    Definitive host = ______.
    Intermediate host = ______.
    • - Taenia solium - man.
    • - Cysticercus cellulosae - swine, man
  26. Taenia ovis:
    Definitive host = _____.
    Intermediate host = _____.
    • - Taenia ovis - dog
    • - Cysticercus ovis - sheep
  27. Taenia taeniaeformis:
    Definitive host = _____.
    Intermediate host = _____.
    • - Taenia taeniaeformis - cat
    • - Cysticercus fasciolaris - rodent
  28. Echinococcus grandulosus:
    Definitive host = _____.
    Intermediate host = _____.
    • - Echinococcus grandulosus - dog
    • - Hydatid cyst (multiple scolex) - sheep, man
  29. Tapes and their larvae are named according to what?
    The number of bladder and scolex they possess.
  30. ___________ – one bladder and one scolex and all belong to the Genus Taenia.
    Cysticercus
  31. Large animal Cysticercoid larvae:
    Family - _____.
    Host - _____.
    Intermediate host - _____.
    • - Anaplocephalidae
    • - Horse, cattle, sheep, and goats
    • - Mite (Oribatei)
  32. Most Common Tape:
    Definitive Host: 
    Larval Name: 
    3 intermediate hosts for larval form
    • - Dipylidium caninum 
    • - Dog  
    • - Cysticercoid 
    • - Flea (Ctenocephalides spp), Biting lice (Trichodectes canis) & Sucking lice (Linognathus setosus).
  33. __________- Is the third type of Metacestoid stage larvae that is relatively common tape we see in dogs and cats.
    Tetrathyridium
  34. Larvae – Tetrathyridium:
    Family - _____.
    Host - _____.
    • - Mesocestoides
    • - Dog and cats
  35. Where would you find the larval form of Tetrathyridium in your mesocestoides?
    • (1) Perineal cavity of mammals
    • (2) Reptiles
    • (3) The lungs of birds
  36. Name the 3 Larval form name for Cestodes:
    • - Cysticercus
    • - Cysticeroid
    • - Tetrathyridium
  37. Aquatic tapes must have what TWO intermediate host?
    • 1. – Crustacean (example snail or clam).
    • 2. – Also must be aquatic (fish etc.), but it can also be an amphibian (frog).
  38. Cestodes of Interest:
    Phylum – _____.
    Class – _____.
    Order – _____.
    Family – _____.
    Genus - Diplydium
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order: Cyclophyllidae
    • Family: Dilepididae
  39. Taenia Taxonomy:
    Phylum – _____.
    Class – Cestoda
    Order - _____.
    Family - _____.
    Genus – Taenia 
    Species of interest - pisiformis, taeniaeformis, Hydatigera
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order: Cyclophyllidae
    • Family: Taeniidae
    • Genus: Taenia
  40. Taenia pisiformis:
    Definitive Host - ______. 
    Intermediate Host – Rabbits, rats, and squirrels as well as many different rodents; however the ______ is considered the definitive intermediate host.
    Eggs hatch inside the animal and inhabit the __________.
    • - Dog
    • - Rabbit
    • - Liver of rabbit
  41. Two Forms of Hydatid Infection:
    • 1. Echinococcus granulosus   
    • Nickname: Hydatid Cyst   
    • Disease Name: Cystic Hydatid Disease
    • Source: Dog eats infected int. host liver & eating raw meat.
    • 2. Echinococuccus multilocularis   
    • Nickname: “Alveolar Hydatid Disease”  
    • Causes: Cancerous lung tumor
    • Source: Fruits and veggies contaminated with feces from infected foxes, coyotes, or dogs, or handling cats and dogs that have eaten infected rodents.
  42. What form of Echinococcus today is considered the most important and most pathogenic?
    Echinococcus multilocularis
  43. How often do we see tapes?
    National Average = ___% for routine preliminary examinations.
    Necropsy Positives = ___%
    • - 2.5%
    • - 35-62%
  44. Cestodes of Equine:
    Phylum - _____.
    Class – _____.
    Order – _____.
    Family – _____.
    Genus - _____.
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order: Cyclophyllidae
    • Family: Anocephalidae
    • Genus: Anoplocephala perfoliata, A. magna, A. mamallana
  45. ___________ is the primary cestode in  horses in the southwest US and is of little threat.
    Anaplocephala perfoliata
  46. Taxonomy of Ruminants:
    Cestodes - _____.
    Phylum – _____.
    Class – _____.
    Order – _____.
    Family – _____.
    Genus – _____ and _____.
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class:Cestoda
    • Order: Cyclophyllidae
    • Family: Anoplocephalida
    • Genus: Moneiza expansa, Monieza bendeni
  47. ____ and ____ are 2 cestode parasites that are seen most commonly in the cow, sheep and goat.
    Both are members of the family _______.
    • 1. Moniezia expanza
    • 2. Moniezia benedini
    • - Anoplocephalidae
  48. _______ is the most common cestode species in the pig.
    Nickame - ______. 
    Family - ______.
    The _____ serves as the intermediate host.
    • - Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • - “Thorny Headed Worm”
    • - Acantocephala
    • - beetle (any beetle)
  49. Class Nematodes:
    Cestodes – ______.
    Trematodes – ______.
    Order – ______ – as all trematodes that
    parasitize horses, ruminants, swine, dogs and cats come under this order.
    • - Tapes
    • - Flukes
    • - Digenea
  50. Characterisitics of Trematodes:
    • - Hermaphroditic (bisexual)
    • - All indirect
    • - Capable of asexual reproduction.
  51. Trematode Life Cycle:
    • 1. Egg
    • 2. Egg hatches to Miracidium with cilia and swims.
    • 3. Miracidium penetrates body of snail.
    • 4. In snail Miracidium > Sporocyst
    • 5. Sporocysts (asexually) > 10 Rediae
    • 6. 10 Rediae (asexually) > 10 Cercariae
    • 7. Cercariae leave the snail, swim to grass where they are consumed by ruminant. Metamorphosis occurs and they are capable of sexual reporoduction.

    **Can also become Metacercariae if weather is in-climate.**
  52. Flukes of Ruminants - Two Diseases of this Host:
    • 1. Fascioloiasis
    • 2. Dicrocoeliasis
  53. 3 Common Causes (Parasites) of Fascioloiasis:
    • - Fasciola giganta: Giant liver fluke
    • - Fasciola magna: Large liver fluke
    • - Fasciola hepatica: Common liver fluke
  54. Dicrocoeliasis is caused by _______.
    Dicrocoelium lanceatum - Lancet, or Lesser Liver Fluke
  55. Life Cycle of the Liver Fluke:
    • 1. Adult Fasciola hepatica lives in the bile ducts.
    • 2. Sexual and asexual reproduction releases eggs.
    • 3. Eggs pass through bile duct into duodenum.
    • 4. Eggs are diagnosed on fecal flotation. 
    • 5. Eggs > Miracidium > Snail > Sporocysts > Rediae > Cercariae > Metarcercariae (badweather) > consumption via host > penetrate bowel > liver for migration and disruption of paranchyma.
  56. Black's Disease:
    • - Clostridium novyi
    • Gram (+) bacteria
    • - Inhabits liver.
    • - Spore form (dormant).
    • - As flukes migrate the liver, they disturb the dormant spores, which release toxins that will kill the host in a matter of hours, or days.
  57. ______ is the primary lung fluke of dogs, and occasionally cats.  
    The intermediate host is the ______.
    • - Paragonimus kellicotti
    • - Crayfish
  58. In the northwest, the fluke ______ is of primary concern. It carries a rickettsial organism called _______ capable of causing fatal enteritis in the dog. Commonly, it is known as _______.
    • - Nanophytes salmincola
    • - Neorickettsia helmonthoeca
    • - "Salmon Poisoning"
  59. ______ is the common fluke in the US in dogs.
    Alaria canis.
  60. _________ is known as the cat fluke commonly seen in the south. It inhabits the bile ducts and passes eggs similarly to the flukes of ruminants.
    • Amphimerus felineus 
    •            AKA - Platysomum concinnum
  61. When are the best times to deworm?
    • Holidays:
    •       1st – Easter or 1st day Spring – spray    
    •             for flies, too.
    •       2nd – July 4th – spray for flies if no over
    •               heating.
    •       3rd – Thanksgiving – Levamisole for
    •                immune-stimulation properties.
  62. Name 3 different Flukacides:
    • 1. Valbazen (Albendazole) - Pfizer
    • 2. Ivomec (Ivermectin/Clorsulon)  - F
    • 3. Curatrem - Merial / Specific for Liver Flukes.
  63. Horses should be dewormed every ________.
    Cattle should be dewormed every ________.
    • - 2 months
    • - 3 times a year
  64. The National Beef Quality Audit identified _______ as one of the top 10 quality issues facing the beef industry.
    The fact is, they have been identified or diagnosed in native cattle in __ states and can affect _____.
    • - Liver Flukes
    • - 26 states
    • - Bull fertility.
  65. If your cattle have liver flukes, you pay with:
    • a. reduced pregnancy rates
    • b. weaning weights
    • c. rate of gain
    • d. bull fertility
  66. A 4 year study conducted at LSU showed that replacement heifers treated for flukes and dewormed had a __% higher pregnancy rate than heifers treated for worms only. This is alarming when the cost of keeping an open cow is $_____ per year.
    • - 15%
    • - $360
  67. Diseases associated with Protozoans include:
    • - Coccidiosis (bright red blood)
    • - Giardiasis
    • - Hemobartonellosis 
    • - Piroplasmosis
    • - Ehrlichiosis 
    • - Malaria
    • - Trichomoniasis
  68. ____ are not worms, but are instead free-living organisms (mostly one cell), a few of which may live in the bodies of mammals causing disease.
    Protozoans
  69. The 2 Primary Protozoans are:
    • 1. Isospora canis
    • 2. Isospora felis
  70. Another name for piroplasmosis is ______. Etiological agents are ______, or _______ (TX Fever)
    • - Babesiosis
    • - Babesia canis
    • - Babesia bovis
  71. The Class _____ is a group that is basically divided into those in the blood, which are _____ and those in the intestinal tract, which are ______.
    • - Class Mastigophora (flagellates)
    • - Hemoflagellates
    • - Mucoflagellates
  72. __________ – live in the blood, lymph, and tissue spaces and are transmitted indirectly by blood sucking flies. (Most common - ___)
    __________ – live in the intestinal tract, or genital tract and are spread directly through the feces or genital discharges. Live in the mucosa. Normally seen in stress situations.
    • - Hemoflagellates 
    • - Stomoxys calcitrans
    • - Mucoflagellates
  73. Animals with high temp doesn’t come down in 24 hours after administration of antibiotics means you are dealing with a _____, or ____ in 99% of the cases.
    • - Protozoan
    • - Fungus
  74. ____ is a disease, regardless of species, that is referred to as African Sleeping Sickness.
    Trypanosoma
  75. Families in the Order Hemoflagellates:
    • 1. Trypanosoma
    • 2. Leishmaniasis
  76. 3 Parasites are a part of the Trypanosoma Family:
    • 1. Trypanosoma brucci
    • 2. Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • 3. Trypanosoma cruzi
  77. ______ - effects ruminants in south Africa causing Nagana using the Tsetse fly as the intermediate host between wild and domestic cattle.
    Trypanosoma brucci
  78. ______ – no intermediate host (unique), uses direct sexual contact in horses causing Dourine. “Silver Dollar” plaques.
    Trypanosoma equiperdum
  79. ________ – lives in the small intestines unlike
    all the other mucoflagellates. This is a zoonotic problem in this country with contaminated water
    supplies.
    Giardiasis

    Symptoms: Diarrhea and enteritis
  80. Giardia trophozoites anatomy consists of:
    • - Pyriform shape
    • - 8 flagella
    • - two median bodies.
  81. Reportable diseases are diseases that can do at least ONE of these TWO things:
    • 1. Affects man - kill them or make them sick i.e. brucellosis, tuberculosis. They must be common, OR
    • 2. Affects an industry -
    • i.e. sarcoptic mange cause loss of money in sheep industry
  82. ________ – is found primarily in dogs. Seen mostly in Mexico, Central and South America, and the southern states. It is extracellular and is transmitted by blood feeding arthropods like “assassin bugs”, flying arthropods and often through contact with feces if the infected insects.
    Trypanosoma cruzi
  83. Trypanosoma cruzi is zoonotic and in humans it is called _______. Symptoms in pets and humans can include cardiac failure, pyrexia, and can be acute or chronic.
    Chagas Disease
  84. __________ is a condition of Leishmania species, another hemoprotozoan. This parasite is primarily found in specific areas of N. America. Primarily seen along the TX and FL beaches. ________ seem to be the transport host of choice.
    • - Leishmaniasis
    • - Sand flies
  85. __________ – is an intracellular parasite found within erythrocyte cells of dogs. Called _________, the parasite looks like pear shaped organism within canine RBCs. Transmitted by the ______________ (intermediate host), it is the etiology (______) of Texas Fever. Whole function inside the blood cell is to destroy the blood cells. Animals with this parasite basically run out of oxygen, because they kill the RBCs
    • - Babesia canis
    • - Canine piroplasmosis
    • - Boophilus annulatus
    • - Babesia canis
  86. ________ is another intracellular parasite found in the RBCs of the cats in sporadic sites throughout the US. These bodies are not pear shaped but have been described as being in the shape of a ring and referred to as the ring form in blood smears.
    Cytauxzoon felis
  87. Hemoflagattes are intracellular and it is found within __________ when the sand fly injects in the blood stream.
    • - Blood vessels
    • - Spleen
    • - Liver
    • - Other organs
  88. Families in the Order Mucoflagellates:
    • 1. Trichmonads
    • 2. Giardiasis
    • 3. Sporozoa
  89. ________ – this parasite lives in the cecum and colon multiplying in fluid feces and often are blamed for the diarrhea. T. fetus does cause abortion, pyometra and sterility.
    Trichomonas fetus
  90. ________ – is common in women, but is not considered a pathogen.
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  91. Trichomonas is also seen with bacteria in Vincent's Angina producing _______ and _______.
    Pyorrhea and Gingival problems.
  92. Trichomonas seen with bacteria in the mouth of man is called _____ and the - nickname is _____.
    • - Vincent’s Angina
    • - trench mouth
  93. _______ - lives in the small intestines unlike all the other mucoflagellates. This is the most common zoonotic problem in this country with contaminated water supplies. Symptoms are diarrheaand enteritis.
    Giardiasis
  94. How do you test for Trichomonas, Giardiasis and protozoans that are flagellates?
    A direct saline smear.
  95. ________ - two classes occur here, Coccidia and  Piroplasms (of blood causing hemolytic anemia). Coccidia is the mucoflagellate of interest and are very host specific often resulting in superparasitism.
    - Sporozoa
  96. Family - Sporozoa – Known as a ______. It has one primary class known as _______.
    • - Mucosal Apicomplexan
    • - Coccidia
  97. 3 Genuses of Oocysts:
    • Eimeria: farm animals
    • Isospora: dogs, cats, swine and small companion pets
    • Toxoplasma: all domestic animals
  98. Coccidian Life Cycle:
    • 1. Sporozoite are swallowed & invade cells of mucosa & divide to form Merozoites. 
    • 2. Merozoites leave the cells & enter new cells & develop into Male/Female Gamonts.
    • 3. Gamonts mature into Male & Female Macrogametes 
    • 4. The male Macrogamete divides into the Microgamete which fertilizes the female Macrogametes.
    • 5. The female Macrogametes give rise to Zygotes. Only way to tell a zygotes from a oocyst is the zygote is covered with egg yolk around it –the food source.
    • 6. As food materials accumulate around the zygote, it becomes an Oocysts.
    • 7. The oocysts are released at death of the mucosa cell & come out in the feces.
    • 8. Dog consumes oocysts which give rise to 2 –4 Sporocysts which through binary fission will give rise to 4 Sporozoites which is picked up by the definitive host and the process starts over again.
  99. Toxoplasma - _________ is the definitive host, all other domestic and non-domestics serve as intermediates.
    Felidae (family)
  100. Life Cycle of Toxoplasma:
    • 1. Eggs pass from the cat.
    • 2. Oocysts, sporocysts, or sporozoites are picked up by intermediate host.
    • 3. Sporozoites (or sporocysts) will migrate into the tissues of the intermediates and become encysted or pass to the placenta in the human and cause abortions.
    • 4. Cat eats the intermediate and picks up the sporozoite from the intermediate, thus completing the life cycle.
  101. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that infects virtually all ________ (___ are the definitive host). It is estimated that up to __% of people possess circulating antibodies to T. gondii worldwide.
    • - Warmblooded animals
    • - Cats
    • - 33%
  102. List the Genuses from least complex to most complex:
    • Eimeria: simplest of the Genus’s found in farm animals and in birds. Direct Life Cycle
    • Isospora: found in the dog, cat, swine and pocket pets. Life cycle is direct or indirect through sporozoite infected mice that serve as facultative host for I. felis
    • Toxoplasma: sporozoites of T. gondii utilize for direct and indirect means, with the indirect means being far more complex than with Isospora Genus
  103. ____________, the etiology that produces amebic dysentery in humans may also produce sporadic infections in dogs. These infections are usually the result of human associations.
    Entamoeba histolytica
  104. _________ is the ciliated protozoan found occasionally in the cecum and colon of dogs. It is more intimately associated with ____(animal).
    • - Balantidium coli
    • - Pigs
  105. Cryptosporidium – this parasite is found in the __________ of dogs and cats.
    Small intestines
  106. 4 Other Mucoflagellates:
    • 1. Amoeba
    • 2. Ciliates
    • 3. Cryptosporidium
    • 4. Sarcocystis
  107. List 5 Zoonotic Parasites:
    • 1. Visceral Larval Migrans
    • 2. Cutaneous Larval Migrans
    • 3. Toxoplasmosis
    • 4. Cryptosporidium
    • 5. Strongyloides stercoralis
  108. Pathogenic Protozoa of Dogs and Cats:

    Feces -
    Blood -  
    Tissues -
    Intestines - 
    The Common Diseases -
    • Feces: Isospora oocyst, Toxoplasma oocysts, Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba histolytica.
    • Blood: Babesia canis, Trypanosome cruzi, Haemobartonella
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma cysts and Entamoeba histolytica
    • Intestines: Isospora, Toxoplasma and Entamoeba
    • The Common Diseases: Coccidiosis – most common, Giardiasis, Intestinal Trichomonosis, Babesiosis, and Haemobartonellosis
  109. Pathogenic Protozoa of Cattle:

    Feces -
    Blood -
    Reproductive Tract -
    Tissues -  
    Intestines -
    Common Protozoan Diseases -
    • Feces: Eimeria
    • Blood: Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale
    • Reproductive Tract: Trichomonas fetus
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma cysts
    • Intestines: Eimeria
    • Common Protozoan Diseases: Coccidiosis, Anaplasmosis, and Genital Trichomonosis
  110. Pathogenic Protozoa of Sheep & Goats

    Feces -
    Tissues -  
    Intestinal -
    Common Protozoal Diseases -
    • Feces: Eimeria
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma cysts
    • Intestinal: Eimeria
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Coccidiosis
  111. Pathogenic Protozoa of Horses:

    Feces -
    Blood -
    Common Protozoal Diseases -
    • Feces: Trichomonas equi
    • Blood: Babesia caballi and equi
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Intestinal trichomonosis and Babesiosis.
  112. What is the protozoan that is unique to pigs that affects the blood?
    Eperythrozoon suis

     **Nickname - epi (unique to swine)**
  113. _____ treats protozoans.
    - Albon (Sulfurdimethoxine)
  114. Pathogenic Protozoa of Swine: 

    Feces - 
    Blood - 
    Tissues - 
    Intestines - 
    Common Protozoal Diseases -
    • Feces: Balantidium coli, Eimeria, and Isospora
    • Blood: Eperythrozoon suis (#1 killer of pigs)
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma
    • Intestines: Balantidium coli, Eimeria, and
    • Isospora
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Eperythrozoonosis
  115. Pathogenic Protozoa of Poultry:

    Crop Content -
    Intestinal Contents -
    Cecal Contents -
    Blood -
    Tissues -
    Intestines & Cecal -
    Common Protozoal Diseases -
    • Crop Content: Trichomonas
    • Intestinal Contents: Eimeria and Hexamita
    • Cecal Contents: Histomonas and Eimeria
    • Blood: Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus
    • Tissues: Histomonas (liver) & Toxoplasma cysts
    • Intestines & Cecal: Eimeria and Histomonas
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Coccidiosis, Histomoniasis, Crop Trichomonosis, Hexamitosis, and Leucocytozoonosis.
  116. Describe the Dipylidium Life Cycle:
    All Are Indirect

    • 1. Once the proglottids are passed, the Onchospheres are released. 
    • 2. Flea or lice ingest the eggs.  Eggs hatch and migrate to body cavity.
    • 3. The tapeworm develops into a cysticercoid stage with development of the scolex. (1 –2 days) 
    • 4. Dog consumes the fleas/lice and the cysticercoid molts in the dogs intestines.
    • 5. Mature tape develops in the intestines and starts releasing eggs (2-3 weeks later).
  117. Describe the Life Cycles of Taenia:
    All Are Indirect

    • 1. Eggs are laid in contaminated soil.
    • 2. Eggs is consumed by intermediate vertebrate host.
    • 3. Egg hatches in the intermediate host and attaches hexacanth embryos which are the first stage larvae. The embryos move to organs and develops scolices.
    • 4. In the organ (liver) embryo differentiates to 2nd stage.
    • 5. The definitive host now eats the intermediate.
    • 6. The scolices attaches to intestinal wall. Maturing begin
  118. Ideal Characteristics of Antiparasitic Drugs:
    • 1. Selective Toxicity
    • 2. Does Not Induce Resistance
    • 3. Economical
    • 4. Effective and Easy to Apply
    • 5. Fragrant Odor
    • 6. Environmentally Safe
  119. Internal Antiparasitic Terms:

    ______ – over the counter drugs (nonprescription)
    ______ – compounds that kill various types
    of internal parasites.
    ______ – a drug that kills the worm.
    ______ – paralyzes the worm and often results
    in its passage of the parasite alive.
    • - OTC
    • - Antihelmintics
    • - Vermicide
    • - Vermifuge
  120. Name Two Groups of Antinematodes:
    • 1. Piperazine
    • 2. Benzimidazoles
  121. ________ - a vermifuge used once a month as the
    traditionally common “Happy Jack”. Kills ascarids but not
    hooks, tapes, whips, or protozoa.
    Piperazine
  122. _______ – like Task is contraindicated against heartworm positive dogs due to the microfilaria.
    Organophosphate


    *Particularly Gasterophilus**
  123. Drugs Effective Against Bots:
    • - Organophosphates
    • - Task (Dichlorvos)
    • - Combat (Trichlorfon)
  124. Avermectin Family:
    • - Ivermectin (Merial) - HW Prevent. and
    •                                Dewormer
    • - Selemectin (Zoetis) - HW Prevent. and
    •                                 Dewormer
    • - Moxidectin (Bayer) - HW Prevent. and
    •                                Dewormer
    • - Doramectin (Zoetis) - Int./Ext. Parasite
    •                                  Dewormer of Cattle
    • - Eprinomectin (Merial) - Int./Ext. Parasite
    •                                    Dewormer of Cattle
    • - Abamectin (Merick) - Avermectin B1o &
    •                                 MK 936
    •                              - 1st Avermectin that
    •                                  combines products.
    •                              - 80% B1a & 20% B1b
  125. Ivermectin:
    • AKA: Ivomec, Eqvalan, Heartgard-30, Heartgard-30 Plus, & Heartgard for cats.
    • - Kills parasites by enhancing the effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
    • - Acetylcholine (ACH) is a neurotransmitter released by the Autonomic Nervous System as well as cranial and spinal.
    • - Glutamate (glutamic acid), Aspartate (aspartic acid) are neurotransmitters of the CNS. Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
    • and Glycine are important inhibitory neurotransmitters.
  126. Pyrantel:
    • AKA: Strongid, Nemex, Banminth, Imathal are examples of drugs with Pyrantel pamoate and Pyrantel tartrate.
    • - Stimulates the neuro-muscle junction by
    • mimicing ACH and then paralyses the muscles of respiration by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
    • - Among the safest of all antiparasitic killers.
  127. Fenbental:
    - The value of this compound is its combinability with other drugs for broad spectrum control of parasites.

    - Drontal – praziquantel (cestodes) and febantel (rounds and hooks in dogs and cats and ascarids, strongyles and pinworms in horses)
  128. External Antiparasitics:
    • - Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 
    • - Organophosphates & Carbamates
  129. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons:
    - One of the oldest groups of insecticides, and most have been removed from the market because they are readily absorbed in the body and are very resistant to biodegradation.

    - Lipid solubility of these compounds allows them to become deposited in the fat of fish = Dead Fish

    - Chlorinated hydrocarbon use requires certification by the government EPA.
  130. Organophosphates & Carbamates:
    • - These two can kill, but they do decompose easily in the environment pose no real threat to wildlife.
    • - These contain a cholinesterase inhibitor, in other words, a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. - They bind the acetylcholinesterase and continue receptor stimulation.
  131. Amino Acids that are CNS Neurotransmitters:
    • 1. Glutamate
    • 2. Aspartate
  132. Amino Acids as Inhibitory Neurotransmitters:
    • 1. Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
    • 2. Glycine
  133. Two Classes of Acetylcholine Receptors:
    • - Muscarinic Receptors
    • - Nicotinic Receptors
  134. Where are Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors found?
    Only on the target organ (visceral) supplied by the postganglionic neuron of the parasympathetic system. (Cranial and Sacral)

     Symptoms: SLUDDE
  135. SLUDDE:
    • - Salivation
    • - Lacrimation,
    • - Urination
    • - Defecation
    • - Dyspnea
    • - Emesis
  136. Where are Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors found?
    • Primarily located in two places:
    • a. between the preganglionic- postganglionic neurons
    • (pre-synaptic junctions) of both the sympathetic and
    • parasympathetic systems.
    • b. between spinal and cranial motor neurons and the
    • somatic (voluntary) motor structures.

     Signs: paralysis, ataxia, and general motor control loss
  137. Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids:
    • - These constitute the largest group of insecticides.
    • - These are unique in that they are very safe.
    • -  Pyrethrins are natural insecticides derived from chrysanthemum flowers.
    • -  Pyrethroids can be recognized by the –thrin suffix.
  138. Amitraz:
    • - Classified as a Diamide insecticide, was one of the first effective agents available for treatment of demodectic mange in dogs. 
    • - Marketed on the Veterinary Market as Mitaban
    • - Upjohn Company.
  139. Over the Counter (OTC) products with Amitraz:

    1. _____
    2. _____
    • 1. Preventic – tick collar for dogs  
    • 2. Taktic – topical liquid or a collar for use in cattle.
  140. ________ is classified as a chloronicotinylnitroguanidine insecticide used topically to killadult fleas and not ticks.
    Advantage (Imidacloprid)
  141. Products Containing Fipronil:
    • - Frontline
    • - Frontline Plus
    • - Frontline Top Spot
    • - Frontline Spray

    • ** Has been known to produce Paresthesia (stimulation of
    • sensory nerve endings at the site of application.)**
  142. ______ affect immature stages of insects and prevent maturation.
    Insect Growth Regulators
  143. ____ + ____ = Kill Flying Insects
    • - Dawn
    • - Alcohol
  144. Organophosphate Poisoning Symptoms:
    • - Ataxic
    • - Tachycardic
    • - Pinpoint pupils
    • - Vomiting
    • - Stiffness
  145. Insect Growth Regulators - 3 Types:
    • 1. Insect Development Inhibitors
    • 2. Juvenille Hormone Analogs
  146. Juvenille Hormone Analogs Kill in One of Two Ways:
    • 1. Egg will not develop
    • 2. Egg develops but the larvae are dead on hatch.
  147. Amitraz Toxicity is Reverted with ______.
    Yohimbin
  148. Name 12 Parasites of Public Health Importance:
    • 1. Toxocara canis/cati - VLM
    • 2. Ancylostoma braziliense - CLM
    • 3. Borrelia burgdorferi - Lyme Disease
    • 4. Dirofilaria immitus - Heartworms
    • 5. Trichuris vulpis - Trichuris trichura
    •                            (humans)
    • 6. Paragonimus kellicotti - Pulmonary
    •                                      Disease
    •                                      Atalecstasis
    • 7. Mesocestoides spp. - Visceral 
    •                                   Tetrathyridiasis
    • 8. Echinococcus multilocularis - Multiocular
    •                                             Hydatidosis
    • 9. Echinococcus granulosus - Unilocular
    •                                         Hydatid Disease
    • 10. Spirometra mansonoides - Sparganosis
    • 11. Trypanosoma cruzi - Chagas Disease
    • 12. Leishmania donovani - Visceral 
    •                                      Leishmaniasis

    **Don't forget Giardia spp.! Its one of the top ten parasites of public concern.**
  149. 2 Diseases that Antibiotics Wont Treat:
    • - Fungal
    • - Protozoans
  150. ______ is one of the leading causes of abortion in women.
    Toxoplasma gondii

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