Behavioral Sciences 4

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Behavioral Sciences 4
2015-09-01 14:18:28

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  1. cognition
    how our brains process and react to the info overload around us
  2. information processing model
    • Thinking requires sensation, encoding and storage
    • Stimuli must be analyzed by brain (rather than responded to automatically)
    • Situational modification (decisions made in one situation can be adjusted to help solve new problems)
    • Problem solving is dependent on person’s cognitive level, and the context and complexity of the problem
  3. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete operational
    • formal operational
    • believed that each stage is continuous and sequential
  4. assimilation
    process of classifying new information into existing schemata when new info does not fit into existing schemata, then accommodation occurs
  5. accommodation
    process by which existing schemata are modified to encompass this new info
  6. schemata
    organized pattern of behavior and thought (as in children instinctively knowing the grasping reflex)
  7. sensorimotor stage
    • 0-2
    • manipulate environment in order to meet physical needs
  8. primary circular reactions
    repetition of a body movement that originally occurred by chance
  9. secondary circular reactions
    • occur when manipulation is focused on something outside the body such as repeatedly throwing toys from a high chair (repeated b/c child gets response from environment)
    • end with object permanence
  10. object permanence
    understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view.
  11. representational thought
    child has begun to create mental representations of external objects and events.
  12. preoperational stage
    • 2-7
    • symbolic thinking, egocentrism, and centration
  13. symbolic thinking
    ability to pretend, play make believe and have an imagination
  14. egocentrism
    inability to imagine what another person may think or feel
  15. centration
    • tendency to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon (inability to understand conservation)
    • cannot tell different quantity in two identical pizzas
  16. concrete operational stage
    • 7-11
    • understand conservation and consider the perspectives of others
    • logical thinking with concrete objects
  17. formal operational stage
    • 11
    • ability to think logically about abstract ideas, reason with abstract ideas and problem-solve
  18. lev vygotsky
    • child's internationalization of her culture drives cognitive development
    • her skills and abilities are further developed with help from environment (family/friends)
  19. fluid intelligence
    • problem solving skills
    • peaks in early adulthood
  20. crystallized intelligence
    • use of learned skills and knowledge
    • peaks in middle adulthood
  21. dementia
    • begins with impaired memory, but later progresses to impaired judgment and confusion
    • most common cause Alzheimer's disease
    • vascular (multi-infarct) demnetia: high blood pressure and repeated microscopic clots in brain
  22. delirium
    rapid fluctuation in cognitive function that is reversible and caused by medical (nonpsychological) causes like low blood sugar, infection, drug reaction
  23. steps in problem solving
    frame the problem, then generate potential solutions (derived from mental set). when we get stuck on a problem it is because the manner in which we have framed the problem is not useful
  24. functional fixedness
    defined as the inability to consider how to use an object in a nontraditional mannder
  25. algorithms
    formula or procedure for solving a certain type of problem (instructions or math equation that automatically gives you the correct result)
  26. deductive reasoning
    set of general rules and draws conclusions from the info given
  27. inductive reasoning
    • seeks to create a theory via generalizations
    • starts with specific instances and then draw a conclusion from them
  28. heuristics
    • rules of thumb
    • availability heuristic is used when we try to decide how likely something is (when we try to think of how many words with k as their first letter vs. third letter)
  29. representative heuristic
    categorizing items on the basis of whether they fit the prototypical, stereotypical or representative image of the category
  30. base rate fallacy
    using prototypical or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical info
  31. disconfirmation principle
    the evidence obtained from testing demonstrated that the solution does not work
  32. confirmation bias
    tendency to focus on information that fits an individual's beliefs, while rejecting information that goes against them
  33. overconfidence
    tendency to erroneously interpret one's decisions, knowledge and beliefs as infallible
  34. intuition
    ability to act on perceptions that may not be supported by available evidence
  35. recognition-primed decision model
    • doc's brain is sorting through info to match a pattern and using that "intuition" to make a decision.
    • developed by experience
  36. emotion
    subjective experience of a person in a certain situation
  37. Gardner's multiple intelligences
    • linguistic, logical (mathematical), musical, visual (spatial), bodily (kinesthetic), interpersonal, and intrapersonal
    • western culture value linguistic and logical (math)
  38. Intelligence quotient (IQ)
    mental age/chronological age *100