CH 123 ch19

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CH 123 ch19
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2015-06-30 16:56:12
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CH 123 ch19
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  1. what is organic chemistry
    chemistry of carbon compounds
  2. What forms organic compounds according to the vital fource theroy
    living organisms (vital fource theroy)
  3. carbon bond shape
    4 covalent bonds.
  4. bond shape of saturated carbon atom
    each carbon has bonded with 4 other atoms by a single bond, with and angle of 109.5 degrees.
  5. bond type/angle of unsaturated carbon atom
    • contains double or tripple bonds between carbon atoms.
    • -Double bond angle=120 degrees
    • -Triple bond angle=180 degrees
  6. What is a hydrocarbon
    compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon
  7. 3 Principal sources of hydrocarbons?
    • 1) Natural gas
    • 2) petroleum
    • 3) coal
  8. what are aromatic and aliphatic compounds
    • aromatic: compounds that contain a benzene ring (C6H6), 
    • aliphatic: all other compounds.
  9. How is natural gas formed
    anaerobic decay of plants and animals
  10. What are saturated hydro/carbons?
    saturated: containing only single bonds (alkanes)
  11. what is VSEPR?
    • Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory. 
    • -States that electrons repel each other.
  12. 4 types of coal in list of progression
    • 1) Peat
    • 2) Lignite
    • 3) Bituminous Coal
    • 4) Anthracite
  13. Alkanes to memorize
    CH4:
    Methane
  14. Alkanes to memorize:
    C2H6
    Ethane
  15. Alkanes to memorize
    C3H8
    Propane
  16. Alkanes to memorize
    C4H10
    Butane
  17. Alkanes to memorize
    C5H12
    Pentane
  18. Alkanes to memorize
    C6H14
    Hexane
  19. Alkanes to memorize
    C7H16
    Heptane
  20. Alkanes to memorize
    C8H18
    Octan
  21. Alkanes to memorize
    C9H20
    Nonane
  22. Alkanes to memorize
    C10H22
    Decane
  23. What are straight chaine isomers called
    Normal or n
  24. Difference between Empirical formula and Molecular formula
    • Empirical formula is in simplest form (e.g. C3H8)
    • -Molecular formula may be given C3H8, C6H16 etc.
  25. Structural formulas are
  26. Condensed formula
    CH3-CH3
  27. 2 classes of hydrocarbons
    Alphatic everything except, Aromatic C6H6
  28. Organic compounds are classified as _____ and ____
    Parafins/Saturated (1 bond) and unsaturated (1 or more multiple bonds)
  29. Alkanes are also known as___or___ and are ___ chained ____ ____ carbon bonds.
    • -Parafins, or saturated.
    • -straight chain single covalent carbon bond).
  30. 1) A single bond is made from:
    2) A double bond is made from:
    3) A tripple bond is made from:
    • 1) Sigma bond
    • 2) Sigma and Pi bond
    • 3) Sigma and 2Pi bonds.
  31. Isomers:
    Different compounds formed from the same with the same molecular formula.
  32. Rules for naming compounds
    • 1) Number the C atoms in the longest C chain or closest to the branch.
    • 2) Name the number location, and type of branches (di, tri, tetra if more than one of the same) in alphabetical order.
    • 3)Name the parent branch (longest branch) drop the "-ane" end of Alkane group and add "-yl."
  33. Alkyl group names and # of C bonds 
    1) Primary carbon:
    2) Secondary carbon:
    3) Tertiary carbon:
    • 1) Iso- (bond to 1 carbon)
    • 2) Sec- (bond to 2 carbons)
    • 3) Tert- (bonds to 3 carbons)
  34. 4 important non-combustion reactions of Alkanes, and method
    • 1) Halogenation: substitution
    • 2) Dehydration: elimination
    • 3) Cracking: breaking large->small
    • 4) Isomerization: rearranging
  35. What's the Beilstein test for Halogens?
    Copper wire is heated to produce green flame if Halogen is present.
  36. 2 conformations of cyclohexane
    Chair and boat
  37. Naming cycloalkanes
    When a cycloalkane has 2 or more substituted groups, the ring is numbered to give the location of the substituted group the smallest #.
  38. Prefixes when cycloalkanes consist of 2 or more substituted groups.
    • -Di, tri, tetra are used along with
    • -Cis (same), and trans (opposite) are used.
    • (e.g. cis-1,3-dimethyclcyclohexane, trans-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane).

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