PA- lec, Eye Anatomy
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What protects the eye
- Boney orbital cavity
What does it mean when you say "the lid margins approximate completely"?
The eyelids close completely
Where do the upper lids cover when open
the top of the iris
What do the lower lids cover while open?
come to the limbus (border between cornea and sclera
Describe the Tarsal Plates
- upper lateral part of lid
- sebaceous glands
- helps lid margins approximate completely
- secrete lubricant so tears do not overflow
What are the 2 types of conjunctiva?
- Palpebral- covers inner lids
- bulbar- covers scleral
How do you describe the conjunctiva when they are healthy?
What is the red reflex?
Red light seen when using an opthalmoscope, light is bouncing off of the blood vessels
Where is the lacrimal Gland?
Superior and lateral to the eye
Describe the flow of tears
Produced by lacrimal gland > drain into PUNCTUM > down nasolacrimal duct > nose >nasopharynx
Name the 3 coats surrounding the eye
- Retina (transparent vitrous body)
What parts of the eye can we see?
What is the Sclera?
- White of eye
- continuous with the cornea
Describe the cornea
- helps bend light toward retina
- sensitive to touch
- Corneal Reflex
Describe the Choroid
- Dark, light does not reflect off of it
What is CN VII
reaction to touch sent to brain
What is the purpose of the iris?
to contract/dilate pupils with muscles
Describe the pupil
- Should be round and regularParasympathetic-Constricts (CN III)
- Sympathetic- Dilates
Describe the lens
- biconvex disk
- bends to keep light focused on retina
- Bulges for near objects
- Thins for far away objects
- posterior to cornea, anterior to iris/lens
- has aqueous humor
- delivers nutrients and drains metabolic waste
Amount of aqueous humor and resistance to outflow of humor from eye
What is Glaucoma?
Build up of intraoccular pressure
Describe the retina
- visual receptive area
- where vision is converted into nerve impulses
- Optic disk, retinal vessels, macula
What can you see with an Opthalmoscope?
- Optic Disk
- Retinal Vessels
Describe the optic disk
- fibers of retina converge to form optic nerve (CN II)
- on nasal side of retina
- Color from yellow/orange to pink
- distinct outline on the temporal side
What is the physiological cup?
Middle of optic disk where blood vessels and veins enter/exit
What are the Retina vessels?
- 4 pairs of arteries/veins
- thicker towards physiological cup
- Arteries are brighter red and narrower than veins, arterial light reflex
Describe the macula
- on temporal side
- darker in color than rest of background
- Has fovea Centralis-sharpest part of vision
What is the fovea centralis?
the sharpest part of vision
What is Conjugate movement of the eye?
The eyes moving together
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