Biology 8th edition

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Biology 8th edition
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2009-12-13 23:44:42
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Biology
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My biology final
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  1. evolution
    the process of change that has transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today
  2. eukaryotic cell
    is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles.
  3. prokaryotic cells
    the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus
  4. genes
    the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to ofspring.
  5. genome
    the entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
  6. What are the 7 scientific facts about life on earth?
    • 1. life shared basic common features
    • 2.life is ancient
    • 3. all iving thing are realted by descent
    • 4. life has undergone change since its orgin
    • 5. change come from interactions between organisms and their enviroment
    • 6. adaptation is due to evolution by natural selection
    • 7.the history of life can be inferred from empirical evidence
  7. Give examples of adaptation
    • Evolutionary adaption
    • -The appearance of the pygmy sea horse camouflages the animal in its environment. Such adaptions evolve over many generations by the reproductive success of those individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environment.
    • -Man different types of Prey Mantice, more than 1200 species of Mantodea most variation persists because it provides a good fit between organisms and environment.
  8. Describe all living things are related descent.
    • Life shows underlying elements of Unity.
    • -cellular structures
    • -organic chemistry
    • -biochemical machinery
    • -genetic code
  9. Describe life has undergone change since its origin
    • Descent with modification- such as the the finches on the Galápagos Islands, they all have different beak beaks, which are adapted to good sources on the different islands.
    • -genetic changes
    • -transformation can produce new species (speciation)
  10. Speciation
    An evolutionary process in which one species splits into two or more species
  11. Identify the common characteristic/ properties of life
    • -order ex. close up of a sunflower
    • -growth and development
    • -reproduction
    • -energy processing
    • -internal regulation (homeostatsis)
    • -response to environment
    • -evoltuionary adaptation
  12. Name the three domains of life.
    • Domain Bacteria- most diverse and widespread prokaryotes.
    • Domain archaea- Prokaryotes, live in earths extreme environments
    • Domain Eukarya- Protists are unicellular eukaryotes.
    • -Kingdom Fungi
    • -Kingdom Plantae
    • -Kingdom Animalia
  13. Discovery science
    describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data.
  14. hypothesis-based science
    The observations and inductions of discovery science stimulate us to seek natural causes and explanations for those observations.
  15. theory
    • is much broader scope than hypothesis.
    • is general enough to spin off many new specific hypotheses that can be tested
    • is generally supported by a much greater body of evidence
  16. hypothesis
    is a tentative answer to well framed question, and explanation on tria.
  17. science
    the goal of science is to understand natural phenomena
  18. technolgy
    generally applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
  19. Give two examples of evidence for descent with modification.
    • -from a common ancestor.
    • examples
    • -evolutionary tree of elephants and their relatives
    • -Anatomical homologies- Mammalian forelimbs
    • -Similarities in vertebrate embryos, at some in development all vertebrates have a tail .
    • -fossil evidence
  20. Explain how variation among individuals, differential survival and reproduction, and inheritance of traits, can combine to produce evolutionary change in population.
    • The Giraffe Cartoon.
    • The variations between heights of the giraffe, the ones who are two short to reach food die off while the taller ones survive, and they reproduce and their offspring have the tall gene.
  21. Describe one example of a direct observation of evolutionary
    change, and identify the agent of selection involved.
    • The guppies of Trinidad - agent of selction would be the predator
    • HIV - bacteria
  22. Give one example of natural selection being environment- specific.
    Guppies in Trinidad streams, the adaptions is environment specific, with low or no predation favors large and spottier, as high predation favors smaller and less spotty
  23. character
    a heritable feature that varies among individual, such as flower color
  24. trait
    each variant for a character such as purple or white color for flowers
  25. hybridization
    the mating or crossing of two true breeding varieties
  26. P generation
    The true breeding parents, parental generation
  27. F1 generation
    hybrid offsrping, the first generation
  28. F2 generation
    second generation
  29. allele
    any alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects
  30. Law of segregation
    the two alleles for heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes.
  31. homozygous
    an organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a character
  32. heterozygous
    an organism that has two different aleles for a gene
  33. phenotype
    appearance or observable traits
  34. genotype
    gentic makeup
  35. monohybrid
    heterozygous for one character
  36. dihybrids
    individuals heterozygous for two charcters
  37. law of independent assortment
    each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
  38. deleterious
    causing harm or damage
  39. complete dominance
    when the phenotype of the heterozygote and dominate homozygote are indistinguishable.
  40. incomplete dominance
    when the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele

    ex. the snap dragon, one red and one red made pink
  41. codominance
    both alleles are expressed equally in the heterozygote

    ex. blood types
  42. Pleiotrophy
    one gene affects several phenotypic traits.

    ex. cats the gene for white fur also assiciated with blue eyes and deafness
  43. Epistasis
    hene interaction where one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another, independently-inherited gene.

    ex. color coat of mice, or labradors
  44. environment effects
    reaction norms estimate how much phenotype variation is due to environment effects.

    can prevent evolution from occurring even when there are large differences in fitness

    can change the direction of evolution, depending on the environment context of a gene
  45. monozygotic
    twins, genetically identical
  46. Dizygotic
    twins, genetically different
  47. locus/loci
    A specific place among the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located
  48. monomorphic
    a gene that has only one allele
  49. polymorphic
    A gene that more than one allele
  50. haploid
    individual have on allele

    bacteria and viruses
  51. triploid
    have three alleles

    includes asexual frogs, lizards
  52. tertraploid
    individuals have four alleles

    many varieties of ornamental and agricultural plants
  53. Hardy-Weinberg principle
    • A gene pool of a populatio that is not evolving.
    • it states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation to generation.
  54. mutation
    a chane in the nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA
  55. migration(gene flow)
    movement of alleles or gentypes in and out of a population
  56. genetic drift
    changes in allele frequencies due to random sampling effects between generations
  57. natural selection
    changes in allele frequencies due to differentail survival and/or reproduction
  58. migration
    is defined as the movement if individuals of gametes from one population to another.
  59. directional selection
    selection that increases the frequency of one allele or one form of a character

    population average is shifted over time
  60. Stabilizing selection
    selection against extreme phenotypes, where intermediate forms have highest fitness

    population average is preserved; extremes are removed by selection
  61. sexual selection
    a form of natural selstion that occurs when there is competition for mating and/or fertilization opportunities.
  62. sexual dimorphism
    large differences within species due to extreme or exaggerated traits in one sex
  63. large differences between closely-related species in individuals of one sex

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