Biology 8th edition
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the process of change that has transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today
is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles.
the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus
the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to ofspring.
the entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
What are the 7 scientific facts about life on earth?
- 1. life shared basic common features
- 2.life is ancient
- 3. all iving thing are realted by descent
- 4. life has undergone change since its orgin
- 5. change come from interactions between organisms and their enviroment
- 6. adaptation is due to evolution by natural selection
- 7.the history of life can be inferred from empirical evidence
Give examples of adaptation
- Evolutionary adaption
- -The appearance of the pygmy sea horse camouflages the animal in its environment. Such adaptions evolve over many generations by the reproductive success of those individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environment.
- -Man different types of Prey Mantice, more than 1200 species of Mantodea most variation persists because it provides a good fit between organisms and environment.
Describe all living things are related descent.
- Life shows underlying elements of Unity.
- -cellular structures
- -organic chemistry
- -biochemical machinery
- -genetic code
Describe life has undergone change since its origin
- Descent with modification- such as the the finches on the Galápagos Islands, they all have different beak beaks, which are adapted to good sources on the different islands.
- -genetic changes
- -transformation can produce new species (speciation)
An evolutionary process in which one species splits into two or more species
Identify the common characteristic/ properties of life
- -order ex. close up of a sunflower
- -growth and development
- -energy processing
- -internal regulation (homeostatsis)
- -response to environment
- -evoltuionary adaptation
Name the three domains of life.
- Domain Bacteria- most diverse and widespread prokaryotes.
- Domain archaea- Prokaryotes, live in earths extreme environments
- Domain Eukarya- Protists are unicellular eukaryotes.
- -Kingdom Fungi
- -Kingdom Plantae
- -Kingdom Animalia
describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data.
The observations and inductions of discovery science stimulate us to seek natural causes and explanations for those observations.
- is much broader scope than hypothesis.
- is general enough to spin off many new specific hypotheses that can be tested
- is generally supported by a much greater body of evidence
is a tentative answer to well framed question, and explanation on tria.
the goal of science is to understand natural phenomena
generally applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
Give two examples of evidence for descent with modification.
- -from a common ancestor.
- -evolutionary tree of elephants and their relatives
- -Anatomical homologies- Mammalian forelimbs
- -Similarities in vertebrate embryos, at some in development all vertebrates have a tail .
- -fossil evidence
Explain how variation among individuals, differential survival and reproduction, and inheritance of traits, can combine to produce evolutionary change in population.
- The Giraffe Cartoon.
- The variations between heights of the giraffe, the ones who are two short to reach food die off while the taller ones survive, and they reproduce and their offspring have the tall gene.
Describe one example of a direct observation of evolutionary
change, and identify the agent of selection involved.
- The guppies of Trinidad - agent of selction would be the predator
- HIV - bacteria
Give one example of natural selection being environment- specific.
Guppies in Trinidad streams, the adaptions is environment specific, with low or no predation favors large and spottier, as high predation favors smaller and less spotty
a heritable feature that varies among individual, such as flower color
each variant for a character such as purple or white color for flowers
the mating or crossing of two true breeding varieties
The true breeding parents, parental generation
hybrid offsrping, the first generation
any alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects
Law of segregation
the two alleles for heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes.
an organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a character
an organism that has two different aleles for a gene
appearance or observable traits
heterozygous for one character
individuals heterozygous for two charcters
law of independent assortment
each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
causing harm or damage
when the phenotype of the heterozygote and dominate homozygote are indistinguishable.
when the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele
ex. the snap dragon, one red and one red made pink
both alleles are expressed equally in the heterozygote
ex. blood types
one gene affects several phenotypic traits.
ex. cats the gene for white fur also assiciated with blue eyes and deafness
hene interaction where one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another, independently-inherited gene.
ex. color coat of mice, or labradors
reaction norms estimate how much phenotype variation is due to environment effects.
can prevent evolution from occurring even when there are large differences in fitness
can change the direction of evolution, depending on the environment context of a gene
twins, genetically identical
twins, genetically different
A specific place among the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located
a gene that has only one allele
A gene that more than one allele
individual have on allele
bacteria and viruses
have three alleles
includes asexual frogs, lizards
individuals have four alleles
many varieties of ornamental and agricultural plants
- A gene pool of a populatio that is not evolving.
- it states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation to generation.
a chane in the nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA
movement of alleles or gentypes in and out of a population
changes in allele frequencies due to random sampling effects between generations
changes in allele frequencies due to differentail survival and/or reproduction
is defined as the movement if individuals of gametes from one population to another.
selection that increases the frequency of one allele or one form of a character
population average is shifted over time
selection against extreme phenotypes, where intermediate forms have highest fitness
population average is preserved; extremes are removed by selection
a form of natural selstion that occurs when there is competition for mating and/or fertilization opportunities.
large differences within species due to extreme or exaggerated traits in one sex
large differences between closely-related species in individuals of one sex
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