pharmacokinetics

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
304242
Filename:
pharmacokinetics
Updated:
2015-06-23 18:56:15
Tags:
pharmacology
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Description:
what body does to drug
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  1. pharmacokinetics
    • what body does to drug
    • ADME
    • absorption
    • distribution
    • metabolism
    • excretion
  2. bioavailability
    • amount of drug to act on target cell
    • absorption
    • distribution
  3. absorption sites
    • GI tract
    • small intestine
    • duodenum
    • stomach
  4. parental
    injection
  5. topical
    • percutaneous
    • ex: analgesic
  6. subcutaneous
    • fat
    • ex: insulin
  7. sublingual
    • salivary glands
    • under tongue
  8. ADME variables
    • drug form
    • route
    • solubility
    • GI fxn
    • 2+ drugs
  9. absorption
    • @ blood
    • drug to body
  10. distribution
    • @ blood
    • body to target cell
  11. capillaries
    • distribution
    • Xport drug to target cell
  12. blood-brain barrier
    • capillaries tightly bound
    • non-water soluble drug pass only
    • lipids
    • glucose
  13. unbound drug
    • active
    • steady state
  14. protein-binding  (1)
    • plasma protein
    • inactive site
    • ex: albumin
  15. protein-binding (2)
    active drugs cause protein-bound drugs to be released after use
  16. if patient has low albumin levels, what is the problem?
    • overactive drug
    • faster reaction
  17. metabolism
    • @ liver
    • biotransformation
    • drug: active to inactive 
    • prodrug: inactive to active 
    • active to active
  18. prodrug
    • active drugs in form of metabolites 
    • ex: tylenol, acetaminophen
  19. liver enzyme action
    • induction 
    • inhibition
    • first pass effect 
  20. first pass effect
    • pre-systemic
    • hepatic portal system
    • half drug metabolized 
    • low blood levels after passing through liver
  21. metabolites
    systemic waste
  22. induction
    • body: increase number of protein-bound drugs
    • increase number of receptors 
    • liver: increase number of enzymes
    • increase metabolic rate
  23. inhibition
    • body: decrease number of protein-bound drug
    • decrease number of cells
    • liver: decrease number of enzyme
    • decrease metabolic rate
  24. excretion 
    • @ kidney
    • body to out of body
  25. sites of excretion
    • kidney
    • bowells
    • lungs
  26. glomerular filtration
    • excretion
    • @ kidney
    • glomerulus capillary filters
    • unbound drugs
    • from blood to urine
    • protein-bound drugs are not filtered
  27. passive reabsorption
    • excretion 
    • @ kidney
    • lipid-soluble drugs move back into blood.
    • water-soluble drugs remain in urine.
  28. active transport
    • excretion
    • @ kidney 
    • tubular pumps for acids&bases move drugs from blood to urine
  29. serum drug levels
    • minimum effective concentration (MEC)
    • therapeutic level
    • toxic concetration
  30. half-life
    • time required for serum concentration of drug to decrease by 50%
    • average 4 or 5  days to rid of drug
  31. loading dose
    Larger 1st dose  to reach therapeutic level faster.  
  32. Maintenance dose
    dose smaller to maintain therapeutic level
  33. steady state
    • equilibrium
    • regular dosage in therapeutic range
  34. therapeutic level 
    • serum drug level above MEC
    • and below toxic concentration
    • ideally occurs over a longer period of time  
  35. toxic concentration
    • elevated serum drug levels above therapeutic range due to accumulation of drug levels
    • ex: alcohol, tylenol 
  36. chemical name
    name of drug based on chemistry
  37. generic name
    official name of drug
  38. brand name
    trade mark
  39. prototype 
    • first drug in its class that all others are compared to 
    • ex: penicillin 
  40. drug classifications
    • body system
    • clinical indications
    • chemical or physiological actions
  41. body system
    • drug classification
    • ex: CNS
    • cardio
  42. clinical indications
    • drug classification
    • ex: antacids
    • antibiotics
  43. chemical or physiological action
    • drug classification 
    • ex: beta blocker
    • ace inhibitors

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