conjunctiva sclera nbeo.txt

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conjunctiva sclera nbeo.txt
2015-06-20 14:49:47
conjunctiva sclera optometry NBEO

conjunctiva sclera optometry NBEO
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  1. What 2 histological layers exist in the bulbar conjunctiva?
    • Stratified epithelium
    • Submucosa
  2. What is the purpose of the plica semilunaris?
    Provides slack in conjunctiva for lateral movement
  3. What are the peripheral arcades in the conjunctiva?
    Blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva and fornix
  4. What arteries supply to the bulbar conjunctiva?
    Anterior ciliary arteries
  5. What lymph node does the lateral conjunctiva drain into?
    Parotid / preauricular
  6. What lymph node does the medial conjunctiva drain into?
  7. What innervates the bulbar conjunctiva?
  8. What innervates the palpebral conjunctiva?
    V1, V2
  9. What is the thinnest area of sclera?
    0.30 mm (under recti tendons)
  10. What is the weakest area of the sclera?
    Lamina cribrosa
  11. What is the thickest part of the sclera?
    1.0 mm at the posterior pole
  12. what is the nerve supply to the sclera?
    • LPCN
    • SPCN
  13. What are the 3 layers of the sclera?
    • Episclera
    • Stroma
    • Lamina fusca
  14. In what layer of the sclera does iritis and ciliary flush occur?
  15. In what layer of the sclera does melanosis occur?
    Lamina fusca
  16. What systemic diseases cause blue sclera?
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone syndrome)
    • Ehler's Danlos syndrome
  17. Where are the palisades of vogt located?
    At the limbus
  18. What is the purpose of the palisades of vogt?
    Site of corneal stem cells destined to become basal cells
  19. What layer in the drainage angle does descemet's layer become?
    Schwalbe's line
  20. What is a premalignant sign for conjunctival melanoma?
    Primary acquired melanosis
  21. What are key points of primary acquired melanosis?
    • Common in elderly white patients
    • Unilateral
    • Premalignant sign of conjunctival melanoma
  22. What is a premalignant sign of SCC in the conjunctiva?
    Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
  23. What are follicles associated with?
    • Chlamydia
    • Toxic conjunctivitis
    • Viral infection
  24. What layer of the cornea do pterygium destroy?
    Bowman's layer
  25. What is stocker's line?
    Iron deposit found around pterygium
  26. What bacterial conjunctivitis is more common in children?
    h. influenzae
  27. what bacterial conjunctivitis is more common in adults?
    • s. epidermidis
    • s. aureus
  28. what are typical S&S of bacterial conjunctivitis?
    • Acute onset of redness
    • FB sensation
    • Eyelids stuck together upon awakening
    • Mod-severe discharge
    • Clear cornea
    • No lymphadenopathy
  29. What gram stain is a gonococcal infection?
    • Gram -
    • Diplococci
  30. What does chlamydial conjunctivitis cause?
    • Inclusion conjunctivitis
    • Chronic follicular conjunctivitis
    • Preauricular lymphadenopathy
    • Stringy mucous discharge
  31. What organisms cause conjunctivitis with membranes?
    • corynebacterium diphtheriae
    • Strep hemolyticus
    • Strep pneumonia
    • n.Gonorrhoeae
    • s.aureus
    • h.aegypticus
    • e.coli
    • Adenoviruses
    • HSV
  32. How many days after birth does neonatorum gonorrhoeae first present?
    • 2-5 days
    • bilateral
  33. How many days after birth does neonatorum chlamydial conjunctivitis first present?
    • 5-14 days
    • Unilateral
  34. What corneal sign does adenoviral conjunctivitis cause?
    Subepithelial infiltrates (SEIs)
  35. What is the pathophysiology of adenoviral conjunctivitis?
    • upper respiratory tract infection
    • EKC
    • Pharyngoconjunctivitis fever
  36. What is molluscum contagiosum?
    • Asymptomatic
    • Chronic follicular conjunctivitis
    • Pannus
    • Dome-shaped waxy nodule on lid or lid margin
  37. What is the pathophysiology of molluscum contagiosum?
    • DNA Pox virus
    • Suspect HIV
  38. What is found in VKC?
    • Intense itching
    • Stringy mucopurulent discharge
    • Bilateral prominent papillae
    • Shield ulcer
  39. What is the demographic of patient that typically has VKC?
    Male children and young adults
  40. What are Trantas dots?
    Papillae at the limbus found in VKC
  41. What are cobblestone papillae?
    Papillae on the upper palpebral conjunctiva found in VKC
  42. What is found in AKC?
    • Bilateral itching
    • Watery discharge
    • Scaly thickened, swollen eyelids
    • Dennie's lines
    • Inferior papillae
  43. What is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide?
    Chlamydial/trachoma conjunctivitis
  44. What are arlt lines?
    Scarring of superior tarsal conjunctiva found in trachoma conjunctivitis
  45. What are Herbert pits?
    Depressions of limbal conjunctiva after limbal follicles in trachoma conjunctivitis
  46. What conjunctivitis causes velvety superior tarsal conjunctivitis?
    Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK)
  47. What is the demographic most commonly associated with superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis?
    Middle-aged women
  48. What is parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome?
    • Cat-scratch fever
    • Unilateral granulomatous palpebral conjunctivitis
    • Visibly swollen lymphadenopathy
  49. What are the pathophysiologies of parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome?
    • Cat-scratch fever
    • Tularemia(rabbit fever)
    • TB
    • Syphilis
  50. What are S&S of episcleritis?
    • Acute unilateral red eye
    • Mild pain
    • Sectoral injection
    • Can be simple of nodular
    • Blanches with phenyl 10%
  51. What is the pathophysiology of episcleritis?
    • Idiopathic
    • Collagen vascular diseases
    • Acne rosacea
    • HZV/HSV
    • Syphilis
  52. What is the demographic most common with episcleritis?
    Young adults 20-40s
  53. What is the typical demographic found in scleritis?
    Females 40-60s
  54. What is the most common type of scleritis?
  55. What is the most dangerous type of scleritis?
    Necrotizing with inflammation
  56. What is scleromalacia perforans?
    • Necrotizing scleritis without inflammation found in Chronic RA
    • Causes blue hue of sclera
  57. What are examples of granulomatous uveitis?
    • Mutton-fat
    • Koeppe nodules
    • Busacca's nodules
  58. What causes acute non-granulomatous uveitis?
    • AS
    • Reiter's syndrome
    • IBS
    • Behcet's disease
    • Lyme disease
    • Glaucomatocyclitic crisis
  59. What causes chronic granulomatous uveitis?
    • Sarcoidosis
    • TB
    • HZO/HSO
    • Syphilis
  60. What are key findings in ocular syphilis?
    • Maculopapular rash on palms and soles
    • Interstitial keratitis
    • +VDRL/RPR
    • +FTA-ABS
  61. What causes chronic non-granulomatous uveitis?
    • JRA
    • Fuch's heterochromic iridocyclitis
  62. What causes posterior uveitis?
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Histoplasmosis
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Syphilis
    • Pars planitis
    • CMV
  63. What is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in the USA?
  64. What are S&S of toxoplasmosis?
    • Unifocal yellow-white lesion obscured by overlying vitritis
    • Headlights in the fog
  65. What causes toxoplasmosis?
    • Parasite in undercooked meat
    • Toxoplasmas gondii
  66. What is the triad associated with histoplasmosis
    • Peripapillary atrophy
    • Multifocal "punched out" yellow-white lesions
    • Maculopathy (CMNV)
    • Ohio-Mississippi river valley
  67. Where are cotton-bal opacities and candle-wax droppings seen?
  68. What causes snow-banking?
    Pars planitis
  69. Who has- CMV?
    AIDS pts with less than 50