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2015-06-20 18:26:25
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  1. Give 6 functions of the kidneys

    • 1)Waste excretion
    • 2)Water and electrolyte level balancing
    • 3)Blood pressure regulation
    • 4)Production of hormones (erythropoietin and calcitriol)
    • 5)Regulation of RBC production
    • 6) Regulation of blood glucose levels
  2. When blood pressure is low, the KIDNEY cells secrete an enzyme called ___________?
    Renin (Angiotensiongenase)
  3. Fill the blank:

    Renin is converted from the ___________ into Angiotensin I.
  4. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is secreted by ________________. It turns Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II - its active form
    Lungs & Kidneys
  5. Angiotensin II is a blood protein. List three things that it triggers.
    • 1) Vasoconstriction
    • 2) Causes the pituitary gland to release ADH
    • 3) Causes the Adrenal cortex to produce Aldosterone.
  6. Aldosterone causes the kidneys to RETAIN 1)_______ and EXCRETE 2)___________.
    • 1) Sodium (Na)
    • 2) Potassium (K)
  7. Janet walks in complaining that it hurts to urinate, often urinating frequently during the day and night, suprapubic pain, she has cloudy and smelly urine, with haematuria.

    What do you think her symptoms suggest?

    Give two things that would show in a urine analysis?
    - Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    - Blood (WBC & RBC) and Nitrates
  8. Nicole walks in complaining that she has pain in her lower back and abdomen, dysuria, frequency of urination but only passing small amounts (oliguria), dark/smelly/cloudy urine, systemic signs - malaise, nausea, fever.

    What do you think the symptoms suggest?

    What would you find in a urine analysis?
    Acute Cystitis

    Bacteria and White Blood Cells (WBCs)
  9. Gary walks in complaining that he has back pain, high blood pressure, dark/cloudy urine, oedema in the face and eye area, oliguria, general inflammation signs: tiredness, headaches, fever, nausea.

    What do you think the symptoms suggest?
    What would you find in a urine analysis?
    Acute Glomerulonephritis

    Protein and Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
  10. Sophie Redburn walks in complaining of dysuria, pain in the lower back sensitive to touch in the kidney area, fever, fatigue, nausea.

    What do you think her symptoms suggest?

    What would you find in a urine analysis?
    Acute Pyelonephritis

    Bacteria and Pus
  11. Isabelle West walks in complaining of headaches, tiredness, mild anaemia, high ESR.

    What do you think the symptoms suggest?

    What would you find in a urine analysis?
    Chronic Pyelonephritis

    Bacteria and Pus
  12. Sophie Townsend walks in complaining of weight gain and pallor, albuminuria, and oedema. She is suffering from Nephrotic Syndrome. Why is she suffering from oedema?
    • Nephrotic Syndrome is also known as 'leaky glomeruli'. In nephrotic syndrome, protein (albumin) seeps through the leaky glomeruli. As a result of the glomeruli being leaky, this causes a loss of plasma proteins, which causes hypotonic capillaries (more dilute blood). Therefore, excess fluid from the blood moves from the capillaries into tissues throughout the body = OEDEMA.
  13. Jessy Charlton Brown walks in complaining of Glomerular Sclerosis (scarring and fibrosis of the glomerular capillaries). Why is she suffering with high blood pressure?
    Congestion of the glomerular capillaries INHIBITS blood flow, thus leading to high blood pressure, because the kidneys produce more RENIN (Angiotensinogenase) to increase blood flow.
  14. During the Menstrual phase, the follies develop under the influence of 1)_____. In the preovulatory phase, the follicle starts to mature and secretes 2) ______. The follicle also secretes 3)________ which decreases FSH. Then, in the ovulation phase, high oestrogen levels stimulates 4) ______, which triggers release of the egg.
    1) FSH

    2) Oestrogen

    3) Inhibin

    4) LH secretion
  15. Evie walks in complaining of lack of ovulation, infertility, weight gain, oily skin and acne, hyperinsulinaemia, high levels of oestrogen and testosterone, oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea.

    What is she suffering from?

    What would you find in a blood test for this?
    PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)

    • High Insulin
    • High Blood Glucose Levels

    Increased androgens
  16. Alastair walks in complaining of poor urinary flow, difficulty passing urine, dribbling and nocturnal urinating.

    What do you think his symptoms indicate?

    What would you find in a blood test?
    Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Elevated Prostate Specific Antigen Levels (PSA)
  17. Give two functions of the placenta.
    1) Promotes transport of oxygen and nutrients TO the foetus.

    2) Removes waste and CO2 FROM the foetus.
  18. Identify the pathology:
    Lower abdominal pain - can be gradual or sudden and severe - may increase with walking, purulent discharge, maybe dysuria, fever, nausea and vomiting.
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  19. Identify the pathology:

    Pain with menstruation and a few days before, DYSPAREUNIA - pain on intercourse, mid-cycle bleeding, may have heavier menstrual flow, infertility.
  20. Identify the pathology:

    Often asymptomatic, may cause: abnormal bleeding, frequent urination, constipation, heavy sensation in lower abdomen, difficulty conceiving.
  21. Identify the pathology:

    Hard mass, painless mass, usually unilateral (one sided mass) - most common in young men aged 15-35 years.
    Testicular cancer
  22. Give one cause for Bell's Palsy.
  23. Give a cause for Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
  24. Give one cause for Hydrocephalus.
    Older children/adults: Tumours, Trauma.
  25. Give one cause for Meningitis.
    Bacterial infection
  26. Give one cause for Headaches.
    Caffeine Withdrawal.
  27. Give one cause for a Migraine.
  28. Give one cause for Epilepsy
    Head injury
  29. How do anaesthetics work on a neuron?
    They block the Na+ gates from opening thus stopping an action potential from being formed, inhibiting the nerve from being able to transmit the pain message (Depolarisation can not occur).
  30. Give 6 symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    Affects NEURONS in the brain!
    • Low Voice
    • Shuffling Steps
    • Jerky Movements
    • Muscle Stiffness
    • Lack of movement
    • Mask-like Face
  31. Give 6 symptoms of Hydrocephalus**

    - Hydrochephalus affects VENTRICLES in the brain!
    • Headache
    • Neck Pain
    • Drowsiness
    • Confusion
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  32. Give 6 symptoms of Meningitis**
    • Petechiae
    • Photophobia
    • Headache
    • Vomiting
    • Kernig's Sign
    • Brudzinski Sign
  33. Give 6 symptoms of Contusion
    • Headache
    • Confusion
    • Sleepiness
    • Dizziness
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  34. Give 6 symptoms of Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
    • Impaired Eye Movement
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Lethargy
    • Seizures
  35. What is the treatment of Parkinson's Disease?
    Dopamine Replacement
  36. What is the treatment of Hydrocephalus?
    Ventricular Catheter.
  37. What is the treatment for Meningitis?
  38. What is the treatment for ICP (Increased Intracranial Pressure?)
    Intensive Care
  39. What is the function of the Trochlear nerve and what number nerve is it?
    -Eye Movements and Proprioception (Motor)

    Cranial Nerve no. 4
  40. What cranial nerve number is the Trigeminal nerve, and what is its function?
    - Cranial nerve no. 5.

    - Facial sensations and chewing (BOTH motor and sensory)
  41. What cranial nerve is the Oculomotor nerve, and what is its function?
    Cranial Nerve no. 3

    Eye movements, eyelid blinking, proprioception, pupil size. (Motor function)
  42. Give 4 symptoms of a Migraine

    Give 2 Differential Diagnosis*
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Incredibly Painful Head
    • Visual Disturbances

    • DD= Brain tumour
    •         Stroke
  43. Give 4 symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis 

    Give 2 differential diagnosis*
    • Numbness
    • Tingling
    • Blurred Vision
    • Progressive Paralysis

    • DD= Sore Eyes
    •        Motor Neurons Disease (ALS)
  44. What is the definition of a Concussion?
    Reversible head injury which usually results from a significant BLOW to the head causing a sudden movement of the brain and disrupting neurological function.
  45. Give a definition of a Contusion.
    Bruising of the brain with ruptured blood vessels and oedema, usually caused by a BLUNT blow to the head.
  46. Contracoup Injury - give the definition.
    Damage to the brain at a site contra-lateral to the site of direct damage/trauma. Damage occurs as the brain bounces off the skull.
  47. What are Oligodendrocytes?
    Neuroglia (glial cells) that produce myelin sheaths in the CENTRAL nervous system (CNS)
  48. What type of Hypersensitivity reaction is Anaphylaxis?
    Type 1 (involving IgE antibodies) = Think for Extreme Reactions!
  49. What type of Hypersensitivity reaction is SLE?
    Type 3 (involving Antigen-Antibody Immune Complexes)!
  50. What immune cells play a role in Anaphylactic shock?

    -Mast Cells
  51. What type of immune cells play a role in SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematous)?
    - B cells

    - T cells
  52. What are two physiological effects of Anaphylactic shock?

  53. What are two physiological effects of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?
    • Butterfly Rash
    • Anaemia
  54. What is the medical treatment of Anaphylactic shock?
  55. What is the medical treatment of SLE?
  56. What is the definition of an interferon?
    An interferon is produced by a cell infected with a virus. It helps stop replication of viruses within other cells.
  57. What are transferrins?
    Iron-binding proteins that inhibit growth of certain bacteria by inhibiting the available iron that they need for growth.
  58. What are the benefits of inflammation?
    • 1) Promotion of phagocytosis
    • 2) Promotion of immune response - protective proteins such as antibodies can leave the blood stream and enter the tissues as blood vessels become more permeable.
    • 3) Toxin dilution - accumulation of fluid dilutes damaging toxins and waste materials.
  59. Which cells are involved in CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY?

    Which cytokine is involved in CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY?
    1) T Helper 1 Cells

    2) Interleukin 2
  60. Give a definition of CLONAL SELECTION.
    This is cloning of selected lymphocytes under the influence of Interleukin 2 - released by the T cells when an antigen binds to the T cell receptor. This then stimulates the activated T cell to proliferate and differentiate. The cells produced in clonal selection are:

    • - Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    • - Memory T lymphocytes
    • - Helper T lymphocytes
  61. What is Active immunity vs. Passive immunity?
    Active Immunity - when the immune system is producing antibodies

    Passive Immunity - immune system is not involved in any way. It is not producing but is being given antibodies!
  62. Give an example of Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity.
    Transfer of IgG antibodies across the placenta from mother to child.
  63. Give an example of Naturally Acquired Active Immunity
    Natural exposure to a disease, e.g. chicken pox at a chicken pox party!
  64. Give an example of Artificially Acquired Active Immunity.
  65. Give an example of Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity.
    Injection with immunoglobulin (antibodies) e.g. snake anti-venom.
  66. In sterilisation, what temperature would you use Hot Air and how long for?
    Hot Air: 30 minutes at 180 degrees
  67. How long would you use Autoclaving (steam) for, and at what temperature?
    Autoclaving: 20 minutes at 120 degrees
  68. How long would you Pasteurise something for, and at what temperature?
    71.7 degrees for 15 to 25 seconds
  69. A patient walks in complaining of yellow/green SMELLY discharge, presenting with a 'STRAWBERRY CERVIX' on examination. 

    What would you consider is wrong with her?
    Trichomoniasis (caused by a protozoa)
  70. A patient walks in with Neutropenia, THROMBOCYTOPENIA, fatigue, anaemia, anorexia, CACHEXIA (wasting of the body), PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY, DEMENTIA

    What is wrong?
    HIV / AIDS
  71. A patient presents with first CHILLS, then fever for several hours followed by EXTREME SWEATING, headache, SHIVERING, fever, malaise, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, ANAEMIA (haemolysis), haemoglobinuria, and CONVULSIONS.

    What is wrong?
  72. Give a definition of Carcinogenesis.
    The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
  73. What is the difference between carcinoma, sarcoma, and leukaemia?
    Carcinoma = cancer in EPITHELIAL tissues

    Sarcoma = cancer in CONNECTIVE tissue

    Leukaemia = cancer in BLOOD and BONE MARROW
  74. Give 4 risk factors for Colo Rectal Cancer (FAMC)
    High Fat Consumption

    High Alcohol Intake

    High Meat Consumption

    High Calorific Intake
  75. Give 4 risk factors for Pancreatic Cancer (FASC)
    • High Fat Consumption
    • High Alcohol Consumption
    • Smoking (Tobacco)
    • Chronic Pancreatitis
  76. Give 4 signs and symptoms for Pancreatic Cancer
    • Diabetes Mellitus
    • Dark Urine
    • Pale Stools
    • Fatty Stools
  77. Give 4 signs and symptoms of Lung Cancer (think smoker's cough!)*
    • Dry and Persistent Cough
    • Bloody Cough
    • Pain Behind Sternum
    • Recurrent Chest Infections
  78. Give 4 signs and symptoms of Colo Rectal Cancer (AMAA)
    • Abdominal Pain
    • Mucus in Stool
    • Anaemia (chronic blood loss)
    • Alternating bowel habits (diarrhoea and constipation)
  79. Give 4 signs and symptoms of Breast Cancer (DEPU)
    • Discharge or bleeding from nipple
    • Enlargement of axillary lymph nodes
    • Pain in breasts or armpits
    • Unilateral lump of breast
  80. Give 4 Signs & Symptoms of Liver Cancer
    • Fever
    • Jaundice
    • Portal Vein Hypertension
    • Pain Radiating into the Back
  81. Give 4 signs and symptoms of Stomach Cancer
    • Pain in the Stomach Area
    • Disgust for Meat
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  82. Give 4 symptoms of Oesophageal Cancer
    • Problems Swallowing
    • Regurgitation of food
    • Loss of Appetite
    • Weight Loss
  83. 4 symptoms of Bladder Cancer
    • Haematuria (Blood in Urine)
    • Dysuria (Pain Urinating)
    • Urgency Urinating
    • Frequency Urinating
  84. Give 4 symptoms of Leukaemia (FAWE)
    • Fatigue
    • Anaemia
    • Weight Loss
    • Excessive Bleeding
  85. 4 symptoms of Prostate Cancer
    • Back Pain
    • Increased Urinating Frequency
    • Nocturia
    • Dribbling
  86. Give a definition of Convergence vs. Divergence.
    Vergence is the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision.

    Convergence - Simultaneous movement INWARD of eyes TOWARD each other, when looking at Closer objects

    Divergence - Simultaneous movement OUTWARD of eyes AWAY from each other, when looking at DISTANT objects.
  87. What do RoD cells do?
    Allow us to see in low light but don't provide colour (Dark)
  88. What do Cone cells do?
    Stimulated by bright light and allow us to see in colour
  89. What are Filiform Papillae?
    Taste buds present on the whole surface of the tongue. Has tactile receptors that help the tongue move food in the oral cavity.
  90. What are Foliate Papillae?
    Taste buds at the edges of the tongue, most degenerate in childhood.
  91. What are Fungiform papillae?
    Taste buds that are mushroom shaped and present all over the tongue, they contain about 5 taste buds each.
  92. What are VALLATE papillae ?
    The LARGEST taste buds, located at the back of the tongue.
  93. Give the definition for the Retina.
    Inner layer of the eye. The only place where blood vessels can be viewed.
  94. Give 4 causes of HEARING IMPAIRMENT (RON P)*
    • Ruptured Tympanic Membrane
    • Ossicle Abnormalities
    • Noise Trauma
    • Poor Hair Cell Function
  95. Give 4 causes of Labyrinthitis (Otitis Interna)* - [BAV H]
    • Bacteria
    • Allergy
    • Virus
    • Head Injury
  96. Give 4 causes of Tinnitus (NEMS)
    • Noise Exposure
    • Earwax
    • Meniere's Disease
    • Stress
  97. Give 4 Causes of Uveitis (don't think its this) - [VAP F]
    • Viral infection
    • Autoimmune disease
    • Parasitic infection
    • Fungal infection
  98. Give 4 signs and symptoms of Otitis Media
    • Ear Ache
    • Mild Hearing Loss
    • Fever
    • Nausea
  99. 4 symptoms of Blepharitis - inflammation of the eyelids
    • Red Eyelid Margins
    • Itching Eyelid Margins
    • Scales on Eyelash Base
    • Recurrent Styes
  100. Give 4 symptoms of Glaucoma (EWSH)
    • Eye Pain
    • Watery Eyes
    • Sensitivity to Bright Light
    • Haloes around Eyes
  101. Give 4 symptoms of Meniere's Disease (don't think its this!)
    • Dulled hearing
    • Vertigo
    • Vomiting
    • Nausea
  102. What does Binocular Vision mean?
    The 2 images from the two eyes are fused in the cerebrum so that only one image is perceived.
  103. What is there definition of Accommodation?
    A reflex reaction of the eye, in response to focusing on a near object, then looking at a distant object, comprising coordinated changes in vergence, lens shape and pupil size.